Scholarly and Professional Activities

Awards and Recognitions

Dr. Mary Atwell, Professor Emerita of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2004 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Creative Scholar Award.

Dr. Riane Bolin, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, was the recipient of the 2015 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences SAGE Junior Faculty Development Teaching Award.

Dr. Tod Burke, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recently awarded the Richard Tewksbury Award by the Western Society of Criminology, was the 2016 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Creative Scholar Award, was the recipient of the 2014 College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences Distinguished Scholar Award, and the 2012 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Jack Call, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2005 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Nicole Hendrix, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2011 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences SAGE Junior Faculty Development Teaching Award.

Dr. Lucy Hochstein, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2013 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Police Section Outstanding Service Award.

Dr. Stephen Owen, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2015 College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences Distinguished Teaching Award, the 2012 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Creative Scholar Award and the 2010 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Rachel Santos, Professor of Criminal Justice, received the 2016 Award of Appreciation: Research Partnership from the Port St. Lucie, FL Police Department between 2004 and 2016, the 2015 International Association of Crime Analysts: Award for Meritorious Contribution to the Mission of the IACA, and was the 2014 Outstanding Reviewer for Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management in the Emerald Literati Network 2014 Awards for Excellence.

Dr. Roberto Santos, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, was a 2014 Evidence-Based Policing Hall of Fame Inductee in the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy at George Mason University.

Books

Atwell, M. W. (2015). An American dilemma: International law, capital punishment, and federalism. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Atwell, M. W. (2014). Wretched sisters: Examining gender and capital punishment (2nd ed). New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.  [First Edition published 2007]

Atwell, M. W. (2004). Evolving standards of decency: Popular culture and capital punishment. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Atwell, M. W. (2002). Equal protection of the law? Gender and justice in the United States. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Green, E. K., Lynch, R. G., & Lynch, S. R. (2013). The police manager (7th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hendrix, N. (2013). Experience criminal justice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishing.

Owen, S. S., Fradella, H. F., Burke, T. W., & Joplin, J. J. (2015). Foundations of criminal justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  [First edition published 2012]

Santos, R.B. (2016-17, forthcoming). Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping, 4th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Santos, R. B. (2012). Crime analysis with crime mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (1st Edition, 2005; 2nd Edition, 2009; 3rd Edition, 2013; Chinese Translation 3rd Edition, 2014).

Felson, M., & Boba [Santos], R. (2010). Crime and everyday life (4th edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Recent Articles and Book Chapters

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2016). Adultification in juvenile corrections: examining the orientations of juvenile and adult probation and parole officersAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 321-339.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Applegate, B. K. (2015). Adult crime, adult time? Benchmarking public views on punishing serious juvenile felonsCriminal Justice Review, 40, 151-168.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Fagan, A. (2014). Delinquency prevention.  In J. S. Albanese (Ed.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., Fagan, A. A., & Wright, E. M. (2014). Does social support moderate the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence and substance use? Journal of Drug Issues, 44, 362-380.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Steiner, B. (2014). Juvenile delinquency. In J. M. Miller (Ed.), Encyclopedia of theoretical criminology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Burke, T. (2014). Shotspotter technology. In B. Arrigo (ed.), Encyclopedia of criminal justice ethics (pp. 861-862). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Burke, T. W., Owen, S. S., & Few-Demo, A. (2015, June). Law enforcement and transgender communitiesFBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015). High impact learning for student success: Faculty-student research collaborations.  In 2015 Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy proceedings (pp. 40-41).  Blacksburg, VA: Center for Instructional Design and Educational Research.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2014, September/October). The use of book clubs for student engagementThe Criminologist, pp. 27-28.

Call, J. (in press). Criminal Law.  In W. Jennings (ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and punishment.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Call, J. (2015, January).  The Supreme Court rules on searches of cell phones incident to arrestVirginia Police Legal Bulletin, 10.

Call, J. (2015, March).  Review: Checking the Courts: Law, Ideology, and Contingent DiscretionCriminal Law and Criminal Justice Books.  

Call, J. (2014).  Review: Capital Punishment: A Hazard to a Sustainable Criminal Justice SystemLaw and Politics Book Review, 24, 272-274.

Corbin, T., & Hendrix, N. (2014). The demise of the American middle class and the rise of the police state.  In R. Bunker & P. Buker (Eds.), Global criminal and sovereign free economies and the demise of the Western democracies: Dark renaissance (pp. 165-188).  New York, NY: Routledge.

*Currant, H., Burke, T., Owen, S. (July/August, 2016). If you touch it, you own it: The basics of touch DNA in criminal justice. Police and Security News, 32(4), pp. 38-40.

Grubb, C.,* Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015, August). Using canines to address school violenceFBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Hunt, L.W., (2016). Legal Speech and Implicit Content in the Law. Ratio Juris, 29(1), pp. 3-22.

Hunt, L.W., (2016). What the Epistemic Account of Vagueness Means for Legal Interpretation. Law and Philosophy, 35(1).

Hunt, L.W., (2014). The Global Ethics of Helping and Harming. Human Rights Quarterly, 36(4).

Hunt, L.W., (2002). Legal Ethics — Attorney Conflicts of Interest — The Effect of Screening Procedures and the Appearance of Impropriety Standard on the Vicarious Disqualification of a Law Firm. Tennessee Law Review, 70(1).

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Sex and the Fourteenth Amendment:  Part II:  Equal Protection of the Law.  In H. F. Fradella & J. Sumner (Eds.), Sex, sexuality, law, and (in)justice (pp. 109-137).  New York: Routledge.

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Sex and the Fourteenth Amendment:  Part I: Due Process of Law. For H. F. Fradella & J. Sumner (Eds.), Sex, sexuality, law, and (in)justice (pp. 63-108).  New York: Rutledge.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2016, January/February). Teaching tip: Student engagement through professional networking activities.  The Criminologist, pp. 34-36.

Owen, S.  (2016). Prisons: Administration and Organization. In W.  Jennings, G. Higgins, M. Maldonado-Molina, & D. Khey (eds.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment (pp. 1030-1033).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Owen, S. (2014). Hurricane Katrina.  In B. Arrigo (ed.), Encyclopedia of criminal justice ethics (pp. 446-449). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Verrecchia, P. J., & Hendrix, N. (2015). The effects of individual characteristics on perceptions of security levels and civil liberties: An examination over a decade after 9/11. Virginia Social Science Journal.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2016). Offender-focused police strategies in residential burglary and theft from vehicle hot spots: A partially blocked randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology. 0.1007/s11292-016-9268-9.

Santos, R.G., Gregory, R., Cordero, L., & Richard, G. (2016). Collaborative Reform Initiative: An assessment of the Salinas Police Department. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2015). Examination of police dosage in residential burglary and theft from vehicle micro-time hots spots. Crime Science, 4(27), 1-12. DOI 10.1186/s40163-015-0041-6.

Santos R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2015). Evidence-based policing, “What works” and Stratified policing, “How to make it work.” Translational Criminology, Spring, 20-22. http://cebcp.org/wp-content/TCmagazine/TC8-Spring2015.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2015). Practice-based research: Ex post facto evaluation of evidence-based police practices implemented in residential burglary micro-time hot spots. Evaluation Review. doi: 10.1177/0193841X15602818.

Santos, R.G. & Santos, R.B. (2015). An ex post facto evaluation of tactical police response in residential theft from vehicle micro-time hot spots. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(4), 679-698.

Santos, R.B., & Davis, C. (2015, forthcoming). Law enforcement data and crime analysis data sources. In Exploring crime analysis: Reading on essential skills (3rd edition).

Santos, R.B. (2015). Routine activity theory: A cornerstone of police crime analyst work. In M. Andresen & G. Farrell (Eds.) (pp 108-114). The criminal act: The role and influence of routine activity theory. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Santos, R.B., & Taylor, B. (2014). The integration of crime analysis into police patrol work: results from a national survey of law enforcement. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 37(3), 501-520.

Santos, R.B. (2014). The effectiveness of crime analysis for crime reduction: Cure or Diagnosis? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2), 147-168.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2014). An experimental test of offender-based strategies in residential burglary and theft from vehicle hot spots. Final Report for Grant No. 2012-DB-BX-0002. Washington DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, Smart Policing Initiative.

Santos, R. B., & Santos, R.G. (2013). Theft at construction sites, crime specialization and concentration section. In G.J.N. Bruinsma, D.L. Weisburd (eds.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice: Crime and Place Volume. New York: Springer Science and Business Media.

Santos, R.B. (2013). Implementation of a police organizational model for crime reduction. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 32(2) 295-311.

Wagers, S. M. (2015). Deconstructing the "power and control motive": Moving beyond a unidimensional view of power in domestic violence theory. Partner Abuse, 6, 230-242.

Wagner, K., Owen, S., & Burke, T. W. (in press). What makes a crime? The perceived harmfulness, wrongfulness, and seriousness of offenses against nonhuman animalsSociety and Animals.

Professional Training and Collaborations

Dr. Egan Green, Professor of Criminal Justice, recently completed the 50th annual Wildlife Management Short Course at Colorado State University.  This course is designed to provide the basic foundations of wildlife management including forestry, fisheries, raptor and large animal habitat management.  Dr. Green will implement the information from this course into his teaching and research on wildlife crime and law enforcement.

Dr. Stephen Owen, Professor of Criminal Justice, has completed ICS-400, Advanced Incident Command System, training.  Dr. Owen has also completed Federal Emergency Management Agency certification as a Professional Continuity Practitioner and the Federal Emergency Management Agency Professional Development Series, as well as hazmat incident command training and the Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program.  Dr. Owen will incorporate perspectives from these sessions into his teaching and research on emergency management. 

Dr. Isaac Van Patten, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recently appointed as embedded criminologist for the Roanoke City Police Department.  Through a memorandum of understanding with the Police Department, Dr. Van Patten has assumed operational direction of the crime analysis unit.  Service as an embedded criminologist is an innovative example of an evidence-based researcher/practitioner partnership which yields benefits to the Roanoke Police Department and to the Radford University Criminal Justice Department, by facilitating a variety of scholarly collaborations.

Dr. Shelly Wagers has been added the the public policy action team for the National Partnership to End Family Violence Across the Lifespan.  Dr. Wagers is on a committee charged with creating a public policy to present to a Congressional Caucus on Sexual Violence and Corporal Punishment.  As part of the think tank there are four other action groups working in a variety of areas and their agenda includes a broader National Policy on ending all forms of interpersonal violence across the lifespan.

Recent Conference Presentations

Abdul-Ra'uf, B. (2015). Simply put, communities of color have little confidence in the police: Challenges within policing.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Abdul-Ra'uf, B. (2014). Social liability and policing: An understanding of incompatibility between social and justice in America.  Paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Social Injustice, Petersburg, VA.

Applegate, B., Ouellette, H., & Bolin, R. (2014). The importance of considering employability: How can we prepare our students for success?  Paper presented at the Southern Criminal Justice Association Annual Meeting, Clearwater Beach, FL.

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2015). Exploring the relationship between professional orientation and probation and parole officer behavior.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2014). Understanding the professional orientation of juvenile and adult probation and parole officers.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2016).  The use of high-impact practices in criminal justice. Roundtable presented at the Western Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC.

Burke, T. W., & Owen, S. S. (2015). Student engagement through networking.  Seminar presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015). High impact learning for student success: Faculty-student research collaborations.  Conversation session presented at the Seventh Annual Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy, Blacksburg, VA.

Cretacci, M., & Hendrix, N. (2015). Gun ownership: Examining the effect of growing up in high crime neighborhoods.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Fenimore, D.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Examining gender specific models of the role of fear of crime on gun ownership.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Green, E. K. (2014). Techniques of neutralization among moonshiners.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Hendrix, N., & Cretacci, M. A. (2014). Predictors of adult firearms ownership.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Hunt, L.W. What the Epistemic Account of Vagueness Means for Legal Interpretation, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, April 2015

Johnson, C. L.,* Fenimore, D.,* Hendrix, N., & Van Patten, I. (2015). Using integrated criminological and urban planning theories to explain changes in crime.  Poster presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Johnson, C. L.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Exploring the effect of mental health issues on state level gun homicide and sucide.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Johnson, C. L.,* Hendrix, N., & Van Patten, I. (2015). Examining the effect of collective efficacy on confidence in law enforcement.  Poster presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Logan, M. K.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Shooter's noose: Gun ownershp and the death penalty in the south.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Misis, M., Bush, M., & Hendrix, N. (2015). An examination of students' fears about terrorism and the likelihood of a terrorist attack.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Assessment for student engagement: Re-thinking your course.  Practice session presented at the Eighth Annual Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy, Blacksburg, VA.

Owen, S. S., Burke, T. W., & Logan, M. K.* (2014). The state of emergency management in criminal justice education.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Pate, M. (2014). Is there a salience bias against juveniles in equal-focus videotaped interrogations?  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Crime Analysis: Cure or Diagnosis? (2 hours) Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Offender-Based Police Response in Property Crime Long-Term Hot Spots: Results from a Random Controlled Trial. (2 hours) Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Introduction to Stratified Policing. (2.5 hours) Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Elements of Stratified Policing. (2.5 hours) Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Panel discussion: Leading Stratified Policing. (1.5 hours) Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2016) Crime Analysis: Cure or Diagnosis? (1 hour) Florida Association of Crime and Intelligence Analyst. Conference, Melbourne, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2015) Stratified Policing: Implementing and Sustaining Problem Solving in a Police Organization. (1.5 hours). 25th Annual Problem-Oriented Policing Conference, Portland, OR.

Santos, R.B. (2015) Impact of Offender-Based Police Response in Property Crime Hot Spots on Crime and Offenders: Results from an RCT (1.25 hours). International Association of Crime Analysts Annual Conference: National Institute of Justice Research Track, Denver, CO

Santos, R.B. (2014) Increasing Crime Analysis Capacity in Your Agency: Discussing the Importance, Feasibility, Challenges, Tools and Processes. (1.5 hours) International Association of Chiefs of Police Annual Conference. Orlando, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2014) Increasing Crime Analysis Capacity in Police Agencies Nationally: A Police Foundation and IACA Partnership (1.25 hours). International Association of Crime Analysts Annual Training Conference, Bellevue, WA.

Santos, R.B. (2014) WORKSHOP: Hot Spots Experiments, General Recommendations and Case Study Results (1.25 hours). International Association of Crime Analysts Annual Training Conference (National Institute of Justice, Crime Mapping and Research Track), Bellevue, WA.

Santos, R.B. (2014) An Organizational Model for Implementing Evidence-Based Crime Reduction Developed Through Police/Researcher Partnerships (30 minutes), Florida Police Chiefs Association Santos, R.B. (2014) Summer Training Conference & Exposition, Boca Raton, FL.

Santos, R.B. (2014) The Effectiveness of Crime Analysis for Crime Reduction: Cure or Diagnosis? (30 minutes) 2014 CEBCP Annual Symposium on Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason University, Arlington, VA.

Santos, R.G. (2016) Introduction to Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.G. (2016) Elements of Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.G. (2016) Panel discussion: Leading Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.G. (2016) Stratified Policing. Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.

Santos, R.G. (2016) Police Effectiveness in Responding to Micro-Time Hot Spots: Results from a Random Controlled Trial. Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.

Santos, R.G. (2015) Stratified Policing: Implementing and Sustaining Problem Solving in a Police Organization. 25th Annual Problem-Oriented Policing Conference, Portland, OR.

Santos, R.G. (2015) Police Response to Property Crime Micro-Time Hot Spots: Results from a Blind Random Controlled Trial. International Association of Crime Analysts Annual Conference: National Institute of Justice Research Track, Denver, CO

Santos, R.G. (2015) Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute, University of Louisville, KY.

Santos, R.G. (2014) Assessing and Improving Analytic Capacities in Smaller Law Enforcement Agencies (Bureau of Justice Assistance Panel). International Association of Chiefs of Police Annual Conference. Orlando, FL.

Santos, R.G. (2014) Increasing Crime Analysis Capacity in Your Agency: Discussing the Importance, Feasibility, Challenges, Tools and Processes. International Association of Chiefs of Police Annual Conference. Orlando, FL.

Santos, R.G. (2014) Protecting Our Communities: Data-Driven, Effective Public Safety Systems and Solutions. Senate Judiciary Committee for Vera Institute of Justice, October 14th. Capitol, Washington DC.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). Crime narratives and criminal decision making among female offenders.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). Red state, blue state: A longitudinal analysis of national firearms interest.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). A risk terrain analysis of domestic violence.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Wagers, S. M., & Sellers, C. S. (2014). Challenging the "power and control" mantra: Exploring the impact of internal power on intimate partner abuse.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

* Indicates a current or former Radford University student co-author.