Hilary M. Lips'
        Chapter Contents for
    A New Psychology of Women
                         Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity
                                                             Fourth Edition
click on  Waveland Press  in regarding to availability and orders

  Chapter 1  Chapter 2  Chapter 3  Chapter 4  Chapter 5  Chapter 6  Chapter 7  Chapter 8  
Chapter 9  Chapter 10  Chapter 11  Chapter 12  Chapter 13  Chapter 14  

Why a Global, Multicultural Psychology of Women
Femininity and Masculinity Are Socially Constructed 5  
  How Many Genders Are There? 8  
If Gender Is the Issue, Why Focus on Women? 11  
  Should a Psychology of Women Be “Feminist”? 13  
Why a Multicultural, Global Approach? 16  
Stereotyping and Discrimination: Universal Barriers for Women? 19  
  How Universal Are Gender Stereotypes? 20
Where Are Gender Stereotypes Most Traditional? 23
Components of Gender Stereotypes 23
The Impact of Stereotypes 24
Prejudice: Negative Evaluation of Women and Their Work 25
Sexism’s Links with Other Forms of Prejudice 27
Discrimination: Keeping Women Down and Out 32
Summary 37
Key Terms 38   Discussion Questions 38   For Additional Reading 39
Web Resources 39
Female-Male Comparisons: The Meaning and Significance of Difference
A Brief History of the Research 42
Approaches to Knowledge: Issues of Method, Evidence, and Truth 46

Feminist Issues and Influences in Psychological Research 46
Quantitative or Qualitative Research: How Important are Numbers? 48

Doing Science: Logical Positivism, Essentialism, and Social Constructionism 49
What Is Good Scientific Evidence? 52
Alternative Approaches to Knowledge 58

Gender Differences and Similarities in Abilities or Styles 60  
  Research on Differences 61  
  Explanations for Gender Differences in Performance 71  
Gender Differences and Similarities in Aggression 76
Explaining Differences and Similarities: Can Biology and Environment
Be Separated? 78
The Meaning of Difference 80
The Question of Differences: The Wrong Question? 81
Summary 82
Key Terms 84   Discussion Questions 84   For Additional Reading 84  
Web Resource 85
Growing Up Female: The Female Body and Its Meanings
Sexual Differentiation: How Bodies Become Female or Male 88  
  Step 1: The Chromosomes 89
Step 2: The Gonads 90
Step 3: Hormones 91
Step 4: The Internal Reproductive Tract 91
Step 5: The External Genitalia 91
The Language of Sexual Differentiation 92
Does the Brain Differentiate by Sex? 92
The Next Step: Rearing 95
  Intersexuality and Behavioral Gender Differences 98  
The Female Body 101  
  Menstruation 102  
  Pregnancy and Childbirth 112  
Controlling the Female Body 115  
  Female Genital Mutilation 115
Virginity Testing 118
Abortion 118
Confining the Female Body: Seclusion, Covering, Binding 121
Displaying the Female Body 123
  Body Shape and Weight 124
Face, Skin, and Hair 129
Summary 131
Key Terms 132   Discussion Questions 133   For Additional Reading 133
Web Resources 134
Growing Up Female II: Expectations, Images, and Identities
Theories of How Gender Shapes Who We Are 137  
  Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories 137  
  Evolutionary Theories 144
Social Learning Theories 149
Developmental Theories 152
Beyond Childhood: Social Roles 153
Models and Media Messages around the World 154
What Does It Mean to Be “Feminine”? 161
  Psychological Androgyny 161
Gender Schema Theory 163
Gender-Based Identity and Other Identities:
       Shaping the Pool of Possible Selves 165
  Identity Flexibility and Change 171
The Self as a Cultural Construction 172
Summary 174
Key Terms 175   Discussion Questions 175   For Additional Reading 176
Web Resources 176
Getting The Message:
Self-Confidence, Assertiveness, and Entitlement
Self-Confidence, Courage, and Femininity 179  
  Girls’ Self-Confidence 180
A Loss of Self-Esteem at Adolescence? 186
Confidence, Education, and Life Choices 195
Culture and the Construction of Entitlement 200
Girls and Women Using Power 202  
  Entitlement and the Use of Power 202
Reactions to Female Power 204
Summary 190
Key Terms 191   Discussion Questions 191   For Additional Reading 191  
Web Resources 192
Connections: Communicating with and Relating to Others
Communication 213  
  Verbal Communication 213
Nonverbal Communication 224
Why Should Gender Be Related to Communication Patterns? 228
Friendship 229  
  Friendships between Women 229
Women’s Friendships with Men 21838
How Friendship Patterns Reflect Social Context 239
Summary 240
Key Terms 221   Discussion Questions 221   For Additional Reading 222
Web Resources 222
Family and Intimate Relationships
The Context of Intimate Relationships: Family Structure 245
The Couple Bond 248
  Love 248
Power, Influence, and Equality in Couple Relationships 252
Must Everyone Be Part of a Couple? 260
Marriage: Legalizing the Couple Bond 261
Families and Parenthood 266  
  Mothers and Children 267
Mother—Daughter Relationships 275
Fathers and Children 277
Women Who Do Not Have Children 280
Summary 256
Key Terms 257   Discussion Questions 257   For Additional Reading 257
Web Resources 258
Women’s Work
Job, Family, and Household Tasks: All of It Is Work for Women 286  
  Women’s Paid Work 289
Women’s Unpaid Work 291
Equity and Discrimination 293  
  Discrimination in Hiring, Evaluating, and Paying Workers 295
In Search of Gender Equity in the Workplace: Some Remedies 308
Perceptions of Fairness and Reactions to Affirmative Action 317
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace 320
A Family-Friendly Workplace? Striving for Work—Family Balance 324
  Childcare: A Thorny Issue 326
“Best Practices” by U.S. Companies in Aid of a Comfortable
Work—Family Balance 327
Having It All? Stress and the Double Day 328  
  Staying Busy, Staying Healthy? 328  
The Future of Women’s Work 329
Summary 332

Key Terms 334   Discussion Questions 334   For Additional Reading 334
Web Resources 335
Physical Health, Illness, and Healing
Women’s Strength and Fitness 338
Women and Physical Illness around the World 343
  Life Expectancy 343
Some Major Health Problems for Women 344
Factors Related to Women’s Health 357  
  Health- and Illness-Related Behaviors 357
Poverty and Nutrition 360
Stress and Social Support 361
  Poverty and Nutrition 360
Stress and Social Support 361
Women as Patients in Health Care Systems 365
Women as Healers 369
Summary 374

Key Terms 375   Discussion Questions 375   For Additional Reading 375
Web Resources 376
Mental Health, Illness, and Therapy
Gender and Mental Health 378  
  A Double Standard of Mental Health? 379  
Women and Mental Illness around the World 380  
  Depression 382
Eating Disorders 392
Anxiety Disorders 397
Alcohol and Drug Abuse 400
Diagnosis and Treatment 404  
  The Politics of Diagnosis 404
Psychotherapy 408
Drug Therapy 414Drug Therapy 414
The Social Construction of Women’s Mental Disorders 416
Summary 417

Key Terms 418   Discussion Questions 419   For Additional Reading 419
Web Resources 420
Myths and Scripts for Women Growing Older
The Social Construction of Women’s Aging 423  
  Images of Decline: Media Messages about Women’s Aging 423
Missing Images: Invisible Older Women 426
Images of Power: Stronger, Older Women 427
Encountering Menopause: The Cultural Shaping of a Physiological Event 431  
  The Physical Change 432
The Experience of Menopause across Cultures 432
A Brief History of Medicine’s Approach to Menopause 435
The Debate over Hormone Replacement Therapy 437
Menopause and the Politics of Aging across Cultures 439
New Roles and Relationships 441  
  The Empty Nest: Loss or Liberation? 441
Career Change and Retirement 443
Losing a Life Partner 444
Rejecting the Message of Decline 447
Summary 448

Key Terms 449   Discussion Questions 449   For Additional Reading 449
Web Resources 450
Research on Sexuality: Where Do Our “Facts” Come From? 453
Sexual Desire and Sexual Response 458
  The Medical Model of Sexuality and the Veneration of the Orgasm 462  
Sexual Orientation 466  
  Defining Sexual Orientation 466
Is Women’s Sexual Orientation Inborn? Discovered? Constructed
All of the Above? 469
The Social Context of Sexual Behavior 471  
  Culture and Sexual Scripts 471
Issues in Lesbian Sexualities 477
Sexualities and Disabilities 480
Managing the Consequences of Sex 482  
  Contraception 482
“Safe Sex” and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 487
Motivations for Sex: Issues of Desire, Love, Power, and Money 489
Summary 494
Key Terms 496   Discussion Questions 496   For Additional Reading 96
Web Resources 497
Violence against Women: A Worldwide Problem
Violence in Close Relationships 501  
  Dating Violence 502
Violence in Heterosexual Marital Relationships 505
Intimate Partner Violence among Lesbians, Bisexual Women, and Transgender Persons 513
Explaining Partner Abuse 514
  Violence in Lesbian Couples 456
Explaining Partner Abuse 514
Sex-Selective Abortion, Infanticide, and Systematic Neglect of Girls 517
Sexual Violence 518
  Rape and Sexual Assault 519
Sexual Abuse of Children 528
Forced Prostitution and Sex Slavery 529
Sexual Harassment, Bullying, Intimation, and Stalking 533  
    Pornography and Sexual Violence 535
Intimidation through the Media: Stalkers and Serial Killers as
Entertainment 536
Torture and Ill-Treatment of Women in Custody 538
Protecting Women from Violence: Some Strategies 538
Freedom from Persecution on the Basis of Gender: A Human Right 542
Summary 543

Key Terms 545   Discussion Questions 545   For Additional Reading 545
Web Resources 546
Leadership, Power, and Social Change
Images and Stereotypes of Powerful Women 549  
  Power and Femininity Don’t Mix 549
Invisibility 556
Motivation, Skills, and Styles in the Use of Power 558  
  Do Women Want to Lead? 559
Claiming Leadership: Women and Men in Groups 560
Styles of Power and Influence 563
Inequality vs. Empowerment: Women around the World 567  
“It’s Not in Her Head”: Barriers to Power for Women 570  
  Glass Ceiling or Labyrinth? 570
An Unwelcoming Environment 571
The Difficult Process of Change 575
Women in Power 577  
  Women as Political Leaders 577
Women, Resistance, and Collective Action: Wielding and Building Power from Below 582
Women Claiming Power 589
Summary 591

Key Terms 592   Discussion Questions 592   For Additional Reading 592
Web Resources 593
Glossary 594
References 605
Author Index 681
Subject Index 696
Title & Cover    Overview of Features & Author    Table of Contents    Chapter Contents    Instructors' Manual
A New Psychology of Women, 4th Ed           Women, Men, and Power          Sex & Gender: An Introduction
Center for Gender Studies        Psychology        College of Humanities & Behavioral Sciences        /Radford University
  Website:   H. Lips          H. Lips C.V.          Home Page          ©H. Lips, July 2016
Last updated July 25th, 2016