Music 345

MUSC 345

Catalog Entry

MUSC 345. K-12 Vocal Pedagogy
Two hours lecture, one hour laboratory (3).

Study of vocal development from pre-school through high school. The course incorporates both theoretical perspectives and practical experience with respect to guiding and working with the developing voice. At least 6 hours of observation/participation in public school settings is required for Music Education majors.


Detailed Description of Content of Course

1. Physiology of the vocal instrument

        a. The healthy voice at each level of development

        b. Physiological problems of the developing voice

                i. Detection in the classroom and chorus

                ii. Prevention in the classroom and chorus

2. Characteristics of the young singing voice

        a. The child voice, birth to age 5

        b. The child voice, ages 5 to 8

        c. The child voice, ages 9 to 11

        d. The voice at puberty

                i. The male changing voice

        a. Research of John Cooksey, Graham Welch

        b. Theories of Irvin Cooper, Frederick Swanson, Don Collins

        c. Other research and theories

                ii. The female changing voice

        a. Research of Lyn Gackle

        b. Other research and theories

        e. The high school voice

        f. Empirical/acoustical research of the singing voice

3. Techniques for teaching the young singer

        a. The vocal model

        b. Research findings in pitch matching/music perception and cognition

        c. Use of the whole vocal mechanism

        d. Importance of head tone

        e. Vocalizing the young voice

        f. Instructional grouping of male and female singers

4. Dealing with problems

        a. Physiological problems

        b. Psychological problems

        c. Speech/Diction problems

        d. Inappropriate use of the vocal mechanism

5. Selection and use of teaching materials

        a. Nonmusical considerations

        b. Musical considerations

        c.  state and national standards through vocal instruction.

6. Basic diction: the International Phonetic Alphabet

        a. Singing in English

                i. the 22 vowel sounds (16 pure and 6 diphthongs)

                ii. silent letters

                        a) spelled, not sounded (hour, wrong, know)

                        b) sounded, not spelled (one=won, union=yunion)

                iii. division of syllables in song: different division in spelling and sounding

                iv. the two kinds of "r"

                         a) rules of usage

                         b) when to omit

                v. the [y] -- vowel or consonant?

                vi. when to separate words for clarity

                         a) words ending in vowels

                         b) words having different meanings if not separated (bright/eyes, not bright ties)

                vii. diphthongs, triphthongs

                viii use of DANIEL SITTETH: "u" or "ew" pronounced "yu" after consonants

                ix. stressed and unstressed syllables

                x. affected, phoney vs. natural, prolonged

        b. Singing in Latin

                i. the five vowels (omits the Italian e and o)

                ii. diphthongs and glides

                iii. consonants


Detailed Description of Conduct of Course

Class activities include reading assignments, discussion, lecture, papers, peer teaching, individual and small group performance, individual practice, and exams.


Goals and Objectives

At the conclusion of the course, the student will demonstrate: 

    1. Knowledge of the singing voice at each stage of development, from birth through grade 12

    2. Ability to recognize and work with vocal problems

    3. Ability to apply research findings to work with the developing voice

    4. Ability to apply principles of voice care and vocal health to the school music context

    5. Ability to offer effective vocal instruction to students, K-12, both in groups and individually

    6. Ways to implement the National Standards for Arts Education (Music) through experiences in singing

    7. Working knowledge of the International Phonetic Alphabet, applied to English and Latin


Assessment Measures

Grade will be based on written exams, a research paper and assessment of laboratory assignments.


Other Course Information

By consolidating some of the courses specifically designed for Vocal/Choral Music Education majors, placing some courses on a two-year rotation, and The rewriting of this course is part of the restructuring plan for the Department of Music. utilizing other existing courses, faculty resources will be conserved, while instruction critical to the professional preparation of Vocal/Choral Music Education majors is retained.


Approval and Subsequent Reviews

Revised April, 2009