Geospatial Science 425

GEOS 425

Catalog Entry

GEOS 425 Remote Sensing
Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory (4)

Prerequisites: MATH 137 or higher MATH (except MATH 160), GEOS 130 or GEOL 105, GEOS 125, and GEOS 380.

The course provides students the opportunity to (1) learn theory and practice of contemporary remote sensing products (aerial photographs, digital orthophotos, airborne and satellite sensor platforms and their images), (2) learn and experiment with the technologies utilized in the analysis, image processing, and interpretation of these products, and (3) learn the use of the products in analog and digital format for other geographic technologies.


Detailed Description of Content of Course



1. Introduction and Overview of Remote Sensing and Image Processing
2. Low- and Mid-level Aerial Photography


        a. Airphoto Examination and Stereoscopic Pairs
        b. Format of Aerial Photographs
        c. Cameras, Films, and Filters
        d. Orientation and Image Type
        e. Acquisition of Aerial Photographs
        f. Scale Determination
        g. Height, Distance, and Area Determination
        h. Interpretation of visible Cultural and Physical Features
        i. Determination of Correspondence between Maps and Air Photos


3. Digital Orthophotography


        a. Uses and Scales of Digital Orthophotographs
        b. Acquisition of Digital Orthophotography


                i. Establishment of Ground Control for Flight lines (GPS)
                ii. Post-flight processing to Digital Formats


        c. Interpretation and Use of Digital Orthophotography


                i. Paper Prints
                ii. Digital Formats
                iii. Compatibility Issues with Digital Processing and GIS Programs



4. High-Level Electro-Optical Sensor Platforms


        a. Analog and digital products and their use
        b. Geo-referencing of high-level photographs


5. Electro-Magnetic Spectrum Sensor Platforms (Multispectral Scanners)


        a. Airborne and Satellite Sensor Platforms


                i. Reasons for Remotely sensed Digital Image Collection
                ii. The Earth Resources Analysis Perspective


        b. Resolution Considerations: Spectral, Spatial, and Temporal


                i.Types of Resolutions for Civilian Use
                ii. Data Volume and Handling Considerations


        c. Image Processing System Considerations
        d. Digital Image Processing


                i. Initial Statistics Extraction
                ii. The Histogram and its Significance to Digital Image Processing of Remote Sensor Data


        e. Display Alternatives


                i. Gray-scale images
                ii. Pseudo-Color Display of Image Bands of Image Bands


        f. Image Pre-Processing


                i. Radiometric Correction
                ii. Geometric Correction (Rectification Processes)


        g. Image Enhancement Techniques


                i. Transects
                ii. Contrast Enhancements: Linear and Non-Linear Enhancements
                iii. Rationing of Bands
                iv. Spatial Filtering: Low- and High-Frequency Filtering
                v. Edge Enhancements
                vi. Spatial Transformations: Principal Components Analysis; Vegetation Indices; Texture Transformations


        h. Thematic Information Extraction from Digital Images


                i. Supervised and Unsupervised Classifications
                ii. Land Use Classification Accuracy Assessment


        g. Change Detection Algorithms


                i. Image Differencing
                ii. Band Ratioing


6. Remote Sensor Data Processing Products as Input into other Geographic Technologies


        a. Geographic Technologies utilizing Remote Sensor Data Processing Products


                i. Analog Maps
                ii. Digital Mapping Programs
                iii. Geographic Information Systems


        b. Data Format Considerations
        c. Data Compatibility Issues (Projections, Datums)


                7. Summary: Current and Anticipated Future Directions for Remote Sensing and Image Processing


Detailed Description of Conduct of Course

The course consists of lectures pertaining to theoretical concepts and practical applications, laboratory exercises (analog and computer-based), student presentation of theoretical and practical aspects, student projects (analog and computer based), and successful incorporation of a final project into another technology, for example,(a layer in a digital mapping project, a coverage in a GIS project, or a presentation utilizing computer technologies.)


Goals and Objectives of the Course

The course provides students with an opportunity to gain an appreciation of and practical experience in working with remote sensor data and image processing techniques. Students will (1) develop a comprehension of the theories used in remote sensing and digital image processing, (2) become proficient in the utilization of the techniques and the technologies of remote sensing and digital image processing, and (3) learn to apply these techniques and technologies in the context to selected exercises.


Assessment Measures

Two examinations, one research paper, several laboratory exercises, and a final applied project constitute the workload in this course. The examinations assess student command of the theories used in remote sensing and image processing. The research paper provides an assessment of the student's in-depth comprehension of a specific instance of remote sensing technology. Laboratory exercises will assess the student's ability to apply remote sensing and image processing techniques. The final applied project will assess the student's ability to select and apply the appropriate technologies to a project of his or her choice in the area of remote sensing/image processing.


Other Course Information




September 2005 Reviewed Bernd H. Kuennecke

February, 2010