Dr. Frederick D. Singer

Reed Hall 0314
Box 6931, Radford University
Radford, VA 24142-6939, U.S.A.
Tel:(540) 831-5115
E-mail: fsinger@radford.edu

Courses Taught

  • BIOL 101 - Principles of Biology I
  • BIOL 102 - Principles of Biology II
  • BIOL 103 - Environmental Biology
  • BIOL 105 - Concepts of Biology
  • BIOL 122 - General Biology
  • BIOL 131 - Ecology and Adaptation
  • BIOL 216 - General Zoology
  • BIOL 353 - Comparative Behavior
  • BIOL 423 - General Ecology
  • BIOL 425 - Evolution
  • BIOL 481 - Field Ecology
  • BIOL 491 - Directed Study

Dr. Singer's Homepage


In 1989, I began working with Dr. Susan Riechert on the behavioral ecology of the funnel-web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. Dr. Riechert has been working on these spiders for approximately 30 years, so I am a relative newcomer to the field. Our research together has encompassed a number of interesting questions, and has included working with a number of interesting researchers. Much of the work has been done at two field sites: one in south-central New Mexico near the town of Carrizozo, and the second at Southwest Research Station near the town of Portal, Arizona. Both sites were awesomely beautiful, and contained some fascinating creatures (in addition to the spiders).

This beautiful animal is found in southwestern United States and down into Mexico. It builds a flat horizontal sheet web, which usually has an attached vertical scaffolding which interrupts the flight of insects, causing them to fall onto the web. If they are an appropriate diet item, the spider will scoop them up, and if overly large, will wrap them up before injecting its toxin which kills them. The insect escape. There is an attached silk funnel which extends into a subterranean retreat, which keeps the spider relatively cool during hot summer days, and relatively warm during cold desert nights. Fortunately for us researcher types, the spiders are primarily active when the temperatures are between 19 and 30 degrees C. Unfortunately, when the winds kick up during the summer evenings, the spiders may stay active all night, which has a profound influence on the sleep pattens of devoted researchers.

Our investigations and discoveries have been far-ranging, and included the following:

  • The spiders are primarily monogamous, but there is some polygyny and polyandry going on as well.
  • Similar selection pressures appear to influence the reproductive success of males and females
  • Big males are more likely to be reproductively successful
  • Females prefer males that use high frequency abdomen waggles during their courtship dance
  • Sexual cannibalism is moderately common in our Arizona population, but very rare (never observed) in the New Mexico population
  • Receptive females exude a pheromone that attract males to their webs
  • Males exude a pheromone that cause the females to go unconscious during mating

I'm hoping to continue field work on this Genus, focusing on two species that are widespread in southwest Virginia.