Scholarly and Professional Activities

Awards and Recognitions

Dr. Riane Bolin, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, was the recipient of the 2015 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences SAGE Junior Faculty Development Teaching Award.  Recipient of the 2017 Tony J. Caeti Memorial Award presented by the Juvenile Justice Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. 

Dr. Jack Call, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2018 College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences Distinguished Teaching Award and the 2005 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Nicole Hendrix, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2011 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences SAGE Junior Faculty Development Teaching Award.

Dr. Lucy Hochstein, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2013 Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Police Section Outstanding Service Award.

Dr. Stephen Owen, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recipient of the 2015 College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences Distinguished Teaching Award, the 2012 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Creative Scholar Award and the 2010 Radford University Foundation Distinguished Service Award.

Dr. Rachel Santos, Professor of Criminal Justice, received the 2016 Award of Appreciation: Research Partnership from the Port St. Lucie, FL Police Department between 2004 and 2016, the 2015 International Association of Crime Analysts: Award for Meritorious Contribution to the Mission of the IACA, and was the 2014 Outstanding Reviewer for Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management in the Emerald Literati Network 2014 Awards for Excellence.

Dr. Roberto Santos, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, was a 2014 Evidence-Based Policing Hall of Fame Inductee in the Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy at George Mason University.

Books

Green, E. K., Lynch, R. G., & Lynch, S. R. (2013). The police manager (7th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Hendrix, N. (2013). Experience criminal justice. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publishing.

Hunt, L.W. (2019). The Retrieval of Liberalism in Policing. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  

Owen, S. S., Fradella, H. F., Burke, T. W., & Joplin, J. J. (2015). Foundations of criminal justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  [First edition published 2012]

Santos, R.B. (2016-17). Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping, 4th Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Santos, R. B. (2012). Crime analysis with crime mapping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. (1st Edition, 2005; 2nd Edition, 2009; 3rd Edition, 2013; Chinese Translation 3rd Edition, 2014).

Felson, M., & Boba [Santos], R. (2010). Crime and everyday life (4th edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Recent Articles and Book Chapters

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2016). Adultification in juvenile corrections: examining the orientations of juvenile and adult probation and parole officersAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(2), 321-339.

Bolin, R.M., Pate, M., & McClintock, J.* (in press). The impact of alcohol and marijuana use on academic achievement among college students. The Social Science Journal.

Kuhns, J.B., Blevins, K.R., Bolin, R.M. & Cambareri, J.F. (2017). Drug use and abuse as primary motivators for male and female involvement in burglary: A comparison of self-reported differences among a random sample of male and female burglars. Journal of Drug Issues, 47(1), 116-131

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Applegate, B. K. (2015). Adult crime, adult time? Benchmarking public views on punishing serious juvenile felonsCriminal Justice Review, 40, 151-168.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Fagan, A. (2014). Delinquency prevention.  In J. S. Albanese (Ed.), Encyclopedia of criminology and criminal justice.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., Fagan, A. A., & Wright, E. M. (2014). Does social support moderate the relationship between adolescent exposure to violence and substance use? Journal of Drug Issues, 44, 362-380.

Miller [Bolin], R. N., & Steiner, B. (2014). Juvenile delinquency. In J. M. Miller (Ed.), Encyclopedia of theoretical criminology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Burke, T. W., Owen, S. S., & Few-Demo, A. (2015, June). Law enforcement and transgender communitiesFBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015). High impact learning for student success: Faculty-student research collaborations.  In 2015 Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy proceedings (pp. 40-41).  Blacksburg, VA: Center for Instructional Design and Educational Research.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2014, September/October). The use of book clubs for student engagementThe Criminologist, pp. 27-28.

Call, J. (in press). Criminal Law.  In W. Jennings (ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and punishment.  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Call, J. (2015, January).  The Supreme Court rules on searches of cell phones incident to arrestVirginia Police Legal Bulletin, 10.

Call, J. (2015, March).  Review: Checking the Courts: Law, Ideology, and Contingent DiscretionCriminal Law and Criminal Justice Books.  

Call, J. (2014).  Review: Capital Punishment: A Hazard to a Sustainable Criminal Justice SystemLaw and Politics Book Review, 24, 272-274.

Corbin, T., & Hendrix, N. (2014). The demise of the American middle class and the rise of the police state.  In R. Bunker & P. Buker (Eds.), Global criminal and sovereign free economies and the demise of the Western democracies: Dark renaissance (pp. 165-188).  New York, NY: Routledge.

*Currant, H., Burke, T., Owen, S. (July/August, 2016). If you touch it, you own it: The basics of touch DNA in criminal justice. Police and Security News, 32(4), pp. 38-40.

Grubb, C.,* Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015, August). Using canines to address school violenceFBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Verrecchia, Philip J. and Nicole Hendrix. (2016) “The Effects of Self-Classification on Perceptions of Security Levels and Civil Liberties Among a Sample of College Students,” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression

Misis, Marcos L., Michael D. Bush, and Nicole Hendrix. (2016). “An examination of College Students’ Fears about Terrorism and the Likelihood of a Terrorist Attack,” Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression.

Verrecchia, Philip J. and Nicole Hendrix. (2015) “The Effects of Individual Characteristics on Perceptions of Security Levels and Civil Liberties: An Examination Over a Decade After 9/11,” Virginia Social Science Journal.

Corbin, Tanya and Nicole Hendrix. (2014) “The Demise of the American Middle Class and the Rise of the Police State,” in Global Criminal and Sovereign Free Economies and the Demise of the Western Democracies: Dark Renaissance edited by Robert Bunker and Pamela Bunker.

Hendrix, Nicole. (2014) “Integrating Criminal Justice Professionals into the Research Methods Classroom ,” The Criminologist, publication for the American Society of Criminology, edited by Dr. Charisse Coston

Hunt, L.W., (2018). The Law in Plato's Laws: A Reading of the "Classical Thesis." Polis: The Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought, 35(1).

Hunt, L.W., (2018). Norms, Narratives, and Politics. Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 101(2).

Hunt, L.W., (2016). Legal Speech and Implicit Content in the Law. Ratio Juris, 29(1), pp. 3-22.

Hunt, L.W., (2016). What the Epistemic Account of Vagueness Means for Legal Interpretation. Law and Philosophy, 35(1).

Hunt, L.W., (2014). The Global Ethics of Helping and Harming. Human Rights Quarterly, 36(4).

Hunt, L.W., (2002). Legal Ethics — Attorney Conflicts of Interest — The Effect of Screening Procedures and the Appearance of Impropriety Standard on the Vicarious Disqualification of a Law Firm. Tennessee Law Review, 70(1).

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Sex and the Fourteenth Amendment:  Part II:  Equal Protection of the Law.  In H. F. Fradella & J. Sumner (Eds.), Sex, sexuality, law, and (in)justice (pp. 109-137).  New York: Routledge.

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Sex and the Fourteenth Amendment:  Part I: Due Process of Law. For H. F. Fradella & J. Sumner (Eds.), Sex, sexuality, law, and (in)justice (pp. 63-108).  New York: Rutledge.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2016, January/February). Teaching tip: Student engagement through professional networking activities.  The Criminologist, pp. 34-36.

Owen, S.  (2016). Prisons: Administration and Organization. In W.  Jennings, G. Higgins, M. Maldonado-Molina, & D. Khey (eds.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment (pp. 1030-1033).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Owen, S. (2014). Hurricane Katrina.  In B. Arrigo (ed.), Encyclopedia of criminal justice ethics (pp. 446-449). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.

Santos, R.B. (In Press). Critic: Predictive policing: Where’s the evidence? In Weisburd, D. & Braga, A.A. (Eds.) Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press.

Santos, R.B. (2015).  Routine activity theory: A cornerstone of police crime analyst work. In M. Andresen & G. Farrell (Eds.) (pp 108-114). The criminal act: The role and influence of routine activity theory.  New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Santos, R.B. (2014). The effectiveness of crime analysis for crime reduction: Cure or Diagnosis? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(2), 147-168.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (In Press). The role of technology in hot spots policing. In Utecht, C. (ed.). Current issues in policing. San Diego: Cognella.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2018). Introduction crime analysis practice, research partnerships, and role in evidence-based policing. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 12 (3), 251–254.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2017). Crime pattern bulletin study: Results. Greenwood Village, CO: Adventos.

Santos, R.G. (In Press). Community-Oriented Policing for Police Supervisors. Washington DC: Department of Justice, Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services.

Santos, R.G. (2018). Offender and family member perceptions after an offender-focused hot spots policing strategy.  Policing: An International Journal, 41(3), 386-400.

Santos, R.G. (2017) Police organizational change after implementing crime analysis and evidence-based strategies through stratified policing. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, Special Issue on Crime Analysis, doi:10.1093/police/pax076, 1-15.

Santos, R.G., Gregory, R., Cordero, L., & Richard, G. (2016). Collaborative Reform Initiative: An assessment of the Salinas Police Department. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Santos, R. G., Santos, R. B. (in press). A Four-Phase Process for Translating Research into Police Practice. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal Police Practice and Research (PPR). Special Issue on “Translational Criminology in Policing.”

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2016). Offender-focused police strategies in residential burglary and theft from vehicle hot spots: a partially blocked randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12(3), 373–402.

Santos R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2015). Evidence-based policing, “What works” and Stratified policing, “How to make it work.” Translational Criminology,  8, 20-22

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2015).  Examination of police dosage in residential burglary and theft from vehicle micro-time hots spots.  Crime Science, 4(27), 1-12.  

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2015). Practice-based research: Ex post facto evaluation of evidence-based police practices implemented in residential burglary micro-time hot spots. Evaluation Review, 39(5), 451-479.

Santos, R.G. & Santos, R.B. (2015). An ex post facto evaluation of tactical police response in residential theft from vehicle micro-time hot spots. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 31(4), 679-698.

Smith, J., Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2018). Evidence-based policing and the stratified integration of crime analysis in police agencies: National survey results. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 12 (3), 303–315.

Verrecchia, P. J., & Hendrix, N. (2015). The effects of individual characteristics on perceptions of security levels and civil liberties: An examination over a decade after 9/11. Virginia Social Science Journal.

Wagner, K., Owen, S., & Burke, T. W. (in press). What makes a crime? The perceived harmfulness, wrongfulness, and seriousness of offenses against nonhuman animalsSociety and Animals.

Professional Training and Collaborations

Dr. Egan Green, Professor of Criminal Justice, recently completed the 50th annual Wildlife Management Short Course at Colorado State University.  This course is designed to provide the basic foundations of wildlife management including forestry, fisheries, raptor and large animal habitat management.  Dr. Green will implement the information from this course into his teaching and research on wildlife crime and law enforcement.

Dr. Stephen Owen, Professor of Criminal Justice, has completed ICS-400, Advanced Incident Command System, training.  Dr. Owen has also completed Federal Emergency Management Agency certification as a Professional Continuity Practitioner and the Federal Emergency Management Agency Professional Development Series, as well as hazmat incident command training and the Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program.  Dr. Owen will incorporate perspectives from these sessions into his teaching and research on emergency management.

Dr. Rachel Santos and Dr. Roberto Santos are co-principal investigators for a project entitled, “Implementation of Evidence-Based Policing Strategies and Crime Analysis in Rural Police Departments in Southwest Virginia” funded by the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice (Byrne/Justice Assistance Grant).  Drs. Santos provide over 20 agencies with training and technical assistance.

Dr. Roberto Santos and Dr. Rachel Santos are working with the Delaware State Police to provide ongoing technical assistance and development of train-the-trainer program for Stratified Policing and advanced problem solving, crime analysis, and crime reduction training.

Dr. Rachel Santos recently served as a subject matter expert for “Crime Analysis Capability Project” carried out by the Institute for Intergovernmental Research funded by Bureau of Justice Assistance.  She oversaw project design and implementation of three separate grants awarded to one medium sized-agency, one real time crime center, and on regional initiative as well as monitoring their progress and developing a “Crime Analysis Toolkit” for BJA. 

Dr. Roberto Santos and Dr. Rachel Santos recently provided technical assistance and conducted on-site departmental training on Stratified Policing, evidence-based crime reduction, and crime analysis Harrisonburg, VA, Chester, PA, and Salisbury, NC Police Departments, as well as the Walton County, FL and San Mateo County, CA Sheriff’s Offices.

Dr. Isaac Van Patten, Professor of Criminal Justice, was recently appointed as embedded criminologist for the Roanoke City Police Department.  Through a memorandum of understanding with the Police Department, Dr. Van Patten has assumed operational direction of the crime analysis unit.  Service as an embedded criminologist is an innovative example of an evidence-based researcher/practitioner partnership which yields benefits to the Roanoke Police Department and to the Radford University Criminal Justice Department, by facilitating a variety of scholarly collaborations.

Recent Conference Presentations

Abdul-Ra'uf, B. (2015). Simply put, communities of color have little confidence in the police: Challenges within policing.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Abdul-Ra'uf, B. (2014). Social liability and policing: An understanding of incompatibility between social and justice in America.  Paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Social Injustice, Petersburg, VA.

Applegate, B., Ouellette, H., & Bolin, R. (2014). The importance of considering employability: How can we prepare our students for success?  Paper presented at the Southern Criminal Justice Association Annual Meeting, Clearwater Beach, FL.

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2015). Exploring the relationship between professional orientation and probation and parole officer behavior.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Bolin, R. M., & Applegate, B. K. (2014). Understanding the professional orientation of juvenile and adult probation and parole officers.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Ouellette, H., Applegate, B. K., Vuk, M., Bolin, R. M., & Aizpurua, E. (2016). Fear of crime: Personal concerns and generalized worries. Presented at the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, LA.

Vuk, M., Applegate, B. K., Ouellette, H., Bolin, R. M., & Aizpurua, E. (2016). Public opinion on rehabilitation and punishment: The interaction of offenders' demographics and pragmatic considerations. Presented at the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, LA.

Aizpurua, E., Applegate, B. K., Bolin, R. M., Vuk, M., Ouellette, H. (2016). Public opinion regarding parental responsibility for juvenile crime. Presented at the Annual Conference of the European Society of Criminology, Muenster, Germany.

Bolin, R.M. & Applegate, B.K. (2016). Probing the distinctiveness of juvenile probation practices.  Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Denver, CO.

McClintock, J.*, Bolin, R.M. & Pate, M. (2016).  The impact of substance use on college student success and welfare.  Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Denver, CO.

Bolin, R.M. (Moderator), Hendrix, N., & Pate, M. (2016). Roundtable Presentation: Experimenting with Research Methods. Presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Denver, CO.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2016).  The use of high-impact practices in criminal justice. Roundtable presented at the Western Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC.

Burke, T. W., & Owen, S. S. (2015). Student engagement through networking.  Seminar presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Burke, T., & Owen, S. (2015). High impact learning for student success: Faculty-student research collaborations.  Conversation session presented at the Seventh Annual Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy, Blacksburg, VA.

Cretacci, M., & Hendrix, N. (2015). Gun ownership: Examining the effect of growing up in high crime neighborhoods.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Fenimore, D.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Examining gender specific models of the role of fear of crime on gun ownership.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Green, E. K. (2014). Techniques of neutralization among moonshiners.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Hendrix, N., & Cretacci, M. A. (2014). Predictors of adult firearms ownership.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Hunt, L.W. What the Epistemic Account of Vagueness Means for Legal Interpretation, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division Meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, April 2015

Johnson, C. L.,* Fenimore, D.,* Hendrix, N., & Van Patten, I. (2015). Using integrated criminological and urban planning theories to explain changes in crime.  Poster presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Johnson, C. L.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Exploring the effect of mental health issues on state level gun homicide and sucide.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Johnson, C. L.,* Hendrix, N., & Van Patten, I. (2015). Examining the effect of collective efficacy on confidence in law enforcement.  Poster presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Logan, M. K.,* & Hendrix, N. (2014). Shooter's noose: Gun ownershp and the death penalty in the south.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Misis, M., Bush, M., & Hendrix, N. (2015). An examination of students' fears about terrorism and the likelihood of a terrorist attack.  Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

Owen, S., & Burke, T. (2016). Assessment for student engagement: Re-thinking your course.  Practice session presented at the Eighth Annual Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy, Blacksburg, VA.

Owen, S. S., Burke, T. W., & Logan, M. K.* (2014). The state of emergency management in criminal justice education.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Pate, M. (2014). Is there a salience bias against juveniles in equal-focus videotaped interrogations?  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Costa, E., Pate, M., & Gibson, C. (2017). Can molecular genetic evidence in a criminal trial influence potential jurors perceptions of the defendant and charging decisions? Results from a randomized experiment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 44(8), 1101-1119. doi: 10.1177/0093854817715882 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0093854817715882#articleCitationDownloadContainer

Wagers, S. M., Pate, M., Turmel, S., & Burke, J.* (2017). What motivates today’s criminal justice student to become an engaged learner? Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 1-21. doi: 10.1080/10511253.2017.1336247 http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/q22XHmPQreqAN4EBJiqz/full

Santos, R.B. (2017). Crime Analysis and Crime Reduction. Presentation hosted by the Roanoke County, VA Police Department through BJA Smart Policing Initiative.

Santos, R.B. (2017). The Role of Crime Analysis in Effective Policing Approaches to Crime Reduction. 23rd Annual Massachusetts Association of Crime Analyst Conference, Hyannis, MA.

Santos, R. B. (2016).  How to Identify Meaningful Patterns. Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.                                      

Santos, R.B. (2016). Constructing Action-Oriented Pattern Bulletins. Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.                                      

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2018). Predictive Policing: Where’s The Evidence?  Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis Conference, Elche, Spain.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2017). Evidence-Based Policing and Organizational Change: Findings from Three Police Departments. American Society of Criminology Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2017). Measuring Organizational Change for the Implementation of Evidence-Based Policing Practices. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Conference. Kansas City, MO.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2016).Comparing Directed Patrol and Offender and Citizen Contacts in Micro-Time Hot Spots: Blind RCT Result. American Society of Criminology Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Santos, R.B., & Santos, R.G. (2016). Measuring Organizational Systems for Problem Solving. 26th Annual Problem-Oriented Policing Conference, Tempe, AZ.

Santos, R.G. (2017). Crime Analysis for Managers. 23rd Annual Massachusetts Association of Crime Analyst Conference, Hyannis, MA.

Santos, R.G. (2016).  Stratified Policing: Institutionalizing Crime Analysis Tennessee Association of Law Enforcement Analyst. Conference, Oak Ridge, TN.                                       

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2018). Introduction to Stratified Policing. SmartForce™ Command Academy Conference, Breckenridge, CO.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2018). Operationalizing Stratified Policing. SmartForce™ Command Academy Conference, Breckenridge, CO.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2018). Results from a Blind Random Controlled Trial Testing Police Response in Micro-Time Hot Spots.  Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis Conference, Elche, Spain.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2017). Use of Force, Crime Reduction, and Community Engagement: Methods and Results of Assessment and Evaluation in Police Departments. American Society of Criminology Conference, Philadelphia, PA.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2017). Methods for Assessing and Improving Police Legitimacy and Police/Community Relationships. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, Kansas City, MO.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2017). Stratified Policing. Presentation to the Roanoke, VA Police Department.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2016). Offender Perceptions of a Police Response in Long-Term Property Crime Hot Spots. American Society of Criminology Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2016). Introduction to Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Santos, R.G., & Santos, R.B. (2016). Elements of Stratified Policing. Southern Police Institute Alumni Association Conference, Miramar Beach, FL.

Smith, J., & Santos, R.B. (2016) Examining Relationships Among Crime Analysis Integration, Evidence-based Practice and Accountability in Police Agencies. American Society of Criminology Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). Crime narratives and criminal decision making among female offenders.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). Red state, blue state: A longitudinal analysis of national firearms interest.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Van Patten, I. T. (2014). A risk terrain analysis of domestic violence.  Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Wagers, S. M., Burke, J.*, & Pate, M. (March, 2017).  “A student-professor experiential comparison: Challenges and lessons learned through utilizing high impact practices.”  Paper to be presented at annual meeting Academy Criminal Justice Sciences in Kansas City, Mo. March 2017.

Wagers, S. M., Burke, J.*, & Pate, M. (February, 2017). “Conversation: Experiential learning, service learning, and research, Oh My! Overcoming the challenges of incorporating high impact practices in the modern classroom.”  Conversation Session to be presented at the Annual International Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy. Blacksburg, VA. February 2017.

* Indicates a current or former Radford University student co-author.