PHI KAPPA SIGMA - National History

Dr. Samuel Brown Wylie Mitchell

     Phi Kappa Sigma was founded by Samuel Brown Wylie Mitchell at the University of Pennsylvania on August 16, 1850. Fascinated by the prospect of fraternal relations with his fellowman, Mitchell set out to found a new, secret order in the restricted life of the university at that time. His papers indicate that on August 16, 1850, he had determined to install a new order on the campus. Between August 16 and October 19, 1850, Mitchell sought six other men to constitute the Alpha Chapter of Phi Kappa Sigma. The formal organization of the Alpha Chapter occurred at the home of James Bayard Hodge on October 19,  1850. While the official founding date of the Fraternity is August 16, 1850, Phi Kappa Sigma wasn't official until October 19, 1850.

     Phi Kappa Sigma began celebrating "Founder's Day" on October 19 as a commemoration of the establishment of Alpha Chapter. Mitchell, born August 16, 1828, attained a high level of achievement at the University, including earning B.A., M.A., and M.D. degrees. He spent a year as an assistant physician at Philadelphia Hospital and was responsible for supervising the Fraternity's growth at the University of Pennsylvania and the other schools where early chapters were established. Dr. Mitchell practiced medicine until he was commissioned on April 11, 1861, as a Major and Surgeon in the Union Army with the Eighteenth Pennsylvania U.S. Volunteers. He served with distinction until the expiration of his service on January 24, 1865. In March of the same year, Mitchell was made Lieutenant-Colonel U.S.V. for "gallant and meritorious service."

     Dr. Mitchell was also an outstanding member of the Masons, and an active participant in the professional, social, cultural, and civic life of Philadelphia. James Chamberlain, who probably was the first pledge of the Alpha Chapter, wrote in 1850, "I remember with profound satisfaction and pleasure the kindly and genial appearance of our founder. A nobler man in ideas, sentiments, and character has rarely lived."


     In autumn of 1849, when Samuel Brown Wylie Mitchell matriculated in the sophomore class of the University directly after his graduation from Central High School in Philadelphia, the Delta Phi Fraternity established a chapter at the University of Pennsylvania. During the summer of 1850, a chapter of the Zeta Psi Fraternity established itself on campus. It is probable that the institution of chapters by these two social fraternities at the University of Pennsylvania inspired Mitchell to formulate in his own mind the ideals of a society that would emphasize good fellowship, pursuit of scholarly activities, and qualities of being a gentleman, all combined into a lifelong bond.

     The idea of establishing the Fraternity at the University of Pennsylvania was first recorded in Samuel B.W. Mitchell's personal papers on August 16, 1850, which was also his twenty-second birthday. The date of his birthday, as well as that of the Fraternity, was destined to have a further significance when Dr. Mitchell died on August 16, 1879. When college opened for the fall term of 1850, Samuel B. W. Mitchell had developed the basic principles of the Phi Kappa Sigma Fraternity. These included the Constitution and Ritual, the order's name, and the design of the badge - a Maltese cross supporting the six-pointed star, the letters Phi, Kappa, and Sigma, and the Skull and Bones. No modification, except in size, has ever been made to the badge originally designed by Dr. Mitchell.

   As soon as the school opened for the autumn session, Mitchell communicated his ideas to Charles Hare Hutchinson. Hutchinson was impressed with Mitchell's ideas and explained them to Alfred Victor Dupont, John Thorne Stone, Andrew Adams Ripka, James Bayard Hodge, and Duane Williams. It was these seven men, with Mitchell serving as their leader, who organized Alpha Chapter and officially founded Phi Kappa Sigma on the l9th of October, 1850.

     Fraternities were not welcomed by faculties and administrators of many universities prior to the American Civil War. Many chapters were forced to exist sub-rosa or become extinct, as a result of the antagonism evidenced toward social fraternities. Along with other fraternities, Phi Kappa Sigma was banned from the University of Pennsylvania campus in 1852. Dr. Mitchell was called before the Board of Trustees and asked "Why do you wear that 'Piratical' ensign?" His answer was not recorded, but he must have been convincing since the fraternity was allowed to maintain a sub-rosa existence with headquarters in Mitchell's rooms at the Philadelphia Hospital, where he later served as Assistant Physician.

     While the fraternity operated at the clandestine level, Dr. Mitchell and his fellow brothers established chapters at more receptive institutions. Princeton and Lafayette were added in 1853, and Jefferson (now Washington & Jefferson), Dickinson, Franklin and Marshall, and the University of Virginia were added in 1854. In the mid 1850's, the University of Pennsylvania rescinded its ban on fraternities and in January, 1855, Phi Kappa Sigma was officially recognized by the school. Meetings of the Chapter were held in rented chapter rooms, without dormitory or dining facilities, in various sections of downtown Philadelphia until 1896, when a house was purchased adjacent to the university campus in West Philadelphia.

     According to the first Constitution, Alpha Chapter was authorized to issue charters to new chapters. At the First Phi Kappa Sigma Convention of 1856, the Constitution was amended to require the unanimous approval of all existing chapters in order to establish a new chapter. The development of the abolition movement in the North and the arguments over secession in the South made it impossible for the Fraternity to grant charters to many fine groups located in colleges in the North and particularly in New England. This fact retarded the growth and development of the Fraternity above the Mason-Dixon Line. Theta Chapter at Centenary College, circulated a petition among the southern chapters, asking for an amendment to the Constitution providing that the Fraternity "be an organization for white men, and for white men only." It was further requested that the attitude of the northern brothers on the slavery question be ascertained and all chapters be informed. Mu Chapter, at the old University of Louisiana, presented the problem before the Convention of 1860. After three days of sincere debate, the chapters of the Fraternity unanimously voted that no discriminatory clauses should be included in the Constitution of the Fraternity. This Phi Kappa Sigma policy from 1860 has never been modified in any way.

     In the 1850's, the southern chapters of the Fraternity inaugurated the custom of wearing silver skulls on their badges, and thus were known as the "Silver Skulls." Iota Chapter, at Columbia University, adopted a smaller badge in 1861 than had been worn previously by the membership of any chapter, and also copied the southern custom of utilizing the silver skull. The silver skull on the badge was never reinstituted by any chapter after the Civil War, and is now a legend in the Fraternity.

     There were fifteen chapters of the Fraternity prospering at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War but the conflict destroyed the eight southern chapters and seriously weakened the others. All of the active members of Alpha Chapter enlisted, and the affairs of the Fraternity, both nationally and locally, were supervised by two young alumni, Robert H. McGrath and Edmund Cash Pechin. They maintained correspondence with all chapters in the north and with individual Phi Kaps in the south. Through letters from the southern members, they learned that wearers of "Silver Skulls" had been captured by the Union forces at Gettysburg and assigned to prison camps at Fort Delaware and Johnson's Island. They secured donations of clothing, other necessities, and over $100 in currency to forward to these destitute brothers. Months afterward, Edmund Cash Pechin received a note through the mail from Anthony Sambola, a great leader among Phi Kaps in the south, stating that the fraternal action of the brothers in Philadelphia was known throughout the southern armies, and requesting the names of northern brothers in southern prisons in order that they might reciprocate. This note, which is now in the Archives of the Fraternity, was written on common, brown wrapping paper. It is symbolic today of the severe economic conditions in the south at that time as well as the fraternal spirit of those engaged in the conflict between the States.

     Several unofficial alumni groups were established prior to and during the Civil War. The most noteworthy of these were the Vagabond Club at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the Orphan Club at Baltimore, Maryland, and the Sub-Epsilon Chapter at Cumberland, Maryland. The Sub-Epsilon Chapter was created for the purpose of providing an opportunity for brothers wearing the blue and the gray to mingle socially within the bonds of the fraternity. The records of this early alumni group relate how Confederate Phi Kaps were cleared through the early Union lines in order that they dine and dance with their northern "enemy" brothers at the St. Nicholas Hotel in Cumberland.

     Of the eight southern chapters, Eta was revived at the University of Virginia in 1872, Lambda at the University of North Carolina in 1877, and Mu at Tulane University in 1893. Following the Civil War, the Fraternity instituted chapters at Randolph Macon College in 1872 and at the University of Richmond in 1873. Upsilon Chapter was installed at Northwestern in 1872 and provided a base for further expansion in the Midwest. Phi Kappa Sigma became an International Fraternity with the founding of Alpha Beta Chapter at the University of Toronto in 1895. The first West Coast chapter was established at the University of California at Berkeley in 1903.

     The fraternity's expansion policy between 1860 and 1890 was relatively conservative, and primarily focused on the East coast. With the establishment of Psi Chapter at Pennsylvania State University in 1890, and Rho Chapter at the University of Illinois in 1892, a comprehensive, yet conservative, expansion policy was initiated. During the following quarter century, chapters were developed at outstanding institutions from coast to coast.

     The first regularly constituted alumni chapter was organized in New York in 1869. Since then, others have been established in large cities throughout the United States and Canada. Though they do not have the authority to initiate new members, their elected delegates have limited voting privileges on certain matters of national policy at Fraternity conventions. The Hershey, Pennsylvania Convention of 1936 simplified the method of organizing these chapters and as a result, groups of at least ten alumni are now encouraged to form alumni chapters.

     Conventions of delegates were called by the Alpha Chapter until 1858. No permanent executive body existed during the interim between the annual or biennial meetings, and so the officers of Alpha Chapter served as the officers of the Fraternity. At the Convention of 1858, the Supreme Consistory and the High Arch Tribunal were established to provide legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government. These in turn were supplanted by the Grand Chapter and the Executive Board in 1869. It is noteworthy that Phi Kappa Sigma was the first Fraternity to organize a Grand Chapter system and establish a democratic system of government based on chapter representation.

     The first official publication of the Fraternity was the Phi Kappa Sigma Magazine, issued by Alpha Chapter in 1857. It was edited by Pechin and featured chapter reports, news of general fraternity interest, and special features for alumni. In 1872, the General Register, a general listing of Fraternity members by chapter, was published. It was printed every ten years until 1940, presumably when cutbacks due to world War II caused the cessation of the Register. It served as a predecessor to the present Alumni Directory which is now printed approximately every five years.

     In 1891, the Phi Kappa Sigma Quarterly, the successor to the Magazine, was put into circulation. The fraternity-wide publication was the first regularly published composition of the Fraternity, and was later succeeded by the semi-annual Phi Kappa Sigma Newsletter in 1901. Then, in 1993 the Phi Kappa Sigma Newsletter was changed to the Maltese Cross of Phi Kappa Sigma. The Maltese Cross is also a semi-annual publication. In addition to this general magazine, most chapters issue publications for their alumni.

     The turn of the century was a period of growth and reorganization for the Fraternity. Under the leadership of Grand Alpha James Hartley Merrick, the Chapter Advisor system was adopted, making Phi Kappa Sigma one of the first fraternities to utilize such a program. Also during this time, the Fraternity experienced the greatest growth in its history, with the chapter roll totaling 30 in 1906. Merrick's determination and leadership had strengthened the Fraternity and placed it in a position of prominence in the interfraternity world. In order to support the financial burden of the Fraternity, the Phi Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund was established in 1907. To improve organizational operations, the convention of 1915 voted to establish a General Headquarters in Philadelphia, where the daily business of the Fraternity could be conducted under the supervision of a professional staff.

     The United States' entrance into World War I severely curbed the growth of Phi Kappa Sigma as well as many other fraternities. Over 1,400 members of Phi Kappa Sigma were in the armed services during World War I. Remarkably, the Fraternity continued to operate during this period. Chapters were allowed to initiate men, but social functions were severely curbed.

     The years between the two World Wars were very quiet for Phi Kappa Sigma. The outbreak of World War II, however, once again threatened the livelihood of the Fraternity. In 1942, the first complete year of American involvement in the War, the Fraternity set two records: 623 initiates, and an undergraduate population which exceeded 1,000 men. These mileposts were short-lived however, for in the first six months of 1943, these numbers were drastically reduced. Over 2500 Phi Kaps entered military service, and nearly half of Phi Kappa Sigma's forty chapters closed.

     Grand Alpha Murray H. Spahr instituted the Maintenance and Rehabilitation Fund to compensate for the decrease in the number of men who returned to the active chapters after the war. As the war ended and the number of Phi Kaps returning to their chapters was significantly fewer, the Fund helped to ease the financial burden until chapters got back on their feet. Of the chapters closed during World War II, all except except those at the University of Chicago and the University of Minnesota were reactivated.

     The Phi Kaps who fought for their country were awarded many decorations ranging from the Purple Heart to the Congressional Medal of Honor for Distinguished Service. However, the war did not pass without leaving its scars on our Fraternity. Over 200 Phi Kaps gave their lives in service to their country. The first half of the twentieth century, although twice interrupted, witnessed several major administrative changes in Phi Kappa Sigma. The Convention of 1927 provided that an Executive Secretary be appointed as a representative of the Executive Board to administer the General Headquarters of the Fraternity and to promote and develop close relationships between the chapters and Headquarters. However, it was not until 1947 that the first full-time Executive Secretary, later designated Executive Director, was appointed. His major responsibilities were the supervision of all fraternity affairs, chapter visitation, alumni affairs, and fund-raising. The Field Secretary position, which later became the Assistant Director position, was established in 1948 in order to provide a closer tie to the undergraduate chapter and conduct chapter visits.

     In order to bolster the scholastic endeavors of the Fraternity, the Phi Kappa Sigma Educational Fund was created in 1953. Its income, which is generated through alumni donations and appreciation, supports numerous scholarships for undergraduate members.

     After the close of World War II, Phi Kappa Sigma began to grow again. In 1948, the Beta designations for new chapters started with the installation of the Beta Alpha chapter at the University of Oregon. In 1950, the fraternity held its Centennial Convention in Philadelphia. More than 300 brothers attended, revising the Constitution, visiting the International Headquarters Building and Memorial library, and celebrating the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Fraternity. The 1950's were banner years for Phi Kappa Sigma as well as many other fraternities. Fraternity membership in North America reached an all-time high and this positive growth continued into the early 1960's. The middle and late 1960's however, brought student opposition to the Vietnam War and the "anti-establishment" movement. Fraternities were seen as part of the "establishment" and thus came under fire from students. These student attitudes continued into the early 1970's and caused a marked decrease in fraternity enrollments and initiations.

     A study of fraternities began in the early 1980's which helped to bring into focus certain common and detrimental practices. Students responded to the new decade by modifying their behavior and resolving to strengthen their fraternities. At the 81st Grand Chapter, the Fraternity's organizational structure was extensively modified to accommodate current demands and services. The Executive Board, while retaining authority for the operation of the Fraternity, was restructured. The Grand Delta position was created to improve communication between the Fraternity and undergraduate chapters. In 1982, the Phi Kappa Sigma Foundation was created to promote scholarship and leadership programming for the undergraduate members of the Fraternity. The Foundation manages the Annual Alumni Giving Program and Baltzer Graduate Scholarship programs. Funds donated to the Annual Giving Program are used for numerous programs including the Regional Leadership Conferences, educational programs and videotapes. The Baltzer Graduate Scholarship Program, which was made possible through a generous bequest, provides grants to graduate students who give advisory assistance to undergraduate Phi Kap chapters.  Phi Kappa Sigma awards more money in the form of scholarships than any other fraternity in the United States.

     With the development of a more positive atmosphere on college campuses, the Fraternity began to emphasize expansion. Phi Kappa Sigma became a stronger institution, both locally and internationally. Expansion proceeded at a steady pace and the number of the Fraternity's international programs increased. The 1980's were strong years for Phi Kappa Sigma and they helped to set the tone for the Fraternity into the 1990's and beyond.

     In recent years, the Fraternity has continued to meet the challenges of the fraternal environment. Procedures for chapter expansion, both undergraduate and alumni, have been modified with the commitment toward continued growth while maintaining strength and continuity. The Director of Chapter Services position was created in 1990 to supervise the Assistant Directors, coordinate chapter visitation and provide better assistance and services to the chapters. In 1995 the Fraternity added a Director of Expansion position to better focus its expansion efforts. Those two major enhancements to the Fraternity's internal structure, combined with the reorganization of the management team of alumni volunteers helped to increase the number of visits and services offered to the undergraduate chapters.

     Brotherhood, quality, and commitment are the fibers that comprise a strong International Fraternity. With over one-hundred fifty years of experience, Phi Kappa Sigma continues to produce loyal and outstanding members. Based on experience, the Phi Kappa Sigma Fraternity is ready for the unknown ahead.

The Phi Kappa Sigma Male College

     Phi Kappa Sigma is the only fraternity in whose honor a college was founded and named. On the seventh day of February, 1859, the Phi Kappa Sigma Male College, located at Monticello, Arkansas, opened its doors for students. On the twenty-first of February, in the same year, the Legislature of Arkansas chartered this institution, making it the first institution of higher learning in Arkansas.

     This is a bare statement of what is a very important fact to Phi Kaps. The Phi Kappa Sigma College was the first, and only institution of its sort ever known to exist. At this particular period in the history of the United States, many colleges were being established in the South. The spread of education through the southwest was in the ascendant, and the founding of this institution was one of the many steps of progress that were being taken at that time.

     James William Barrow graduated in 1856, with first honors and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Centenary College, in Jackson, Louisiana. He was a member of the Theta Chapter of Phi Kappa Sigma. Shortly after graduation he conceived a plan for founding a college to bear the name of our Fraternity. L.S. Boyd, the author of an article in Banta's Greek Exchange, concerning this college, expresses the opinion that Brother Barrow's purpose in founding of the college was to extend the bounds of the Fraternity. It is much more probable, however, that his true purpose was to extend the influence and prestige of Phi Kappa Sigma. However, as far as it has been determined, Brother Barrow made no attempt to institute a chapter of the Fraternity at this college nor to initiate any of its students into membership in the Fraternity. He was thoroughly conversant with our principles and policies, and realized that the institution of his founding must acquire considerable age and standing before it would be available as a location for a chapter of Phi Kappa Sigma.

     The college began operation under auspicious circumstances, but seemed likely to grow into a large and successful institution. It was not long, however, until the Civil War broke out. Brother Barrow was firmly convinced that the Union should be preserved and favored the waging of the war by the South under the United States flag "for the rights of the Constitution." But when his state seceded, he turned the college building, a large two-story frame structure, over to the Confederates to be used as a store-house, and did all in his power for the cause of the South.

     Hence, the Phi Kappa Sigma Male College was short-lived. After Union troops occupied that section of the country, they took over the building and used it as a hospital until 1864, when they evacuated and burned it. Thus died the practical expression of a noble inspiration. Up until that time the college was the only institution giving work more advanced than that of high school grade in Arkansas.

     Hardly any records of the College are obtainable. No bulletins or courses of study remain to give us a definite knowledge concerning the work and degrees presented. There is, however, a copy of the opening announcement in the Archives of the Fraternity. In addition, there exist the minutes of the Philomathean Literary Society, which was in existence at the college from 1859 through 1860. These minutes disclose very definitely that there was no attempt to establish a chapter of the Fraternity at the College, and further that the personnel of the student body was of exceptionally high character and industry.

     After the war, conditions in the South were such as to make the re-establishment of the college impossible because of the lack of money and available students. Brother Barrow moved to Texas and settled in Collin County. He practiced law for a time and later taught school in Port Oak, Texas. In an obituary published by the Times Star of Terrell, Texas, immediately after Brother Barrow's death in November, 1895, it was said that "he was the best educated man in North Texas and he probably did more for Terrell than any one man at that time, by his pen."

     It is a mark of considerable distinction for this fraternity to number among its alumni many men of the caliber of Brother James William Barrow. It is a matter of some pride that Phi Kappa Sigma is the only fraternity to have a college founded and named in its honor. Certainly the future of America, and of the world, rests in education. From our brief experience with life we may faithfully assert that an institution of learning founded upon and embodying the ideals and principles of Phi Kappa Sigma has struck the keynote essential to the successful propagation of learning among the youth of the country. The Phi Kappa Sigma Male College did not live for long, nor did it fulfill the purpose and dreams of its founder, but it did express the loyalty and love of a member of our brotherhood for our great institution and his earnest desire to perpetuate our ideals. The significance of this short milestone in the progress of education is not large, but its value as an indication of the vital and undying idealism embodied in the ritual of Phi Kappa Sigma is beyond accounting.