Table of Contents: Women, Men and Power
                                                                                       author: Hilary M. Lips, Ph. D.

Preface vii

     Its Many Faces
     Images of Power
          and Powerlessness
Definitions of Power 3
Popular Definitions 3
Traditional Social Science Definitions 4
Power as Social Structure or “Discipline”
Feminist Debates about Power 6
Institutionalizing Power 11
Personal, Collective, and Institutional Power 12
Conclusion: The Faces of Power 13
The Individual Dilemma: Visions of Power that Do Not Fit 16
Powerful Images 16
Gender and the Images of Power 18
Why the “Powerful Woman” Makes Us Uncomfortable 20
The Cultural Mythology of Power and Gender 21
The Powerful Woman as Witch 22
Women in Science: Interlopers and Outcasts 24
Mythological Roots of Male Authority 25
Mythological Traditions of Female Power 26
The Relationship Between “Truth” and Power 28
Power and the “Interpretive Community” 29
Power and the “Transcendent Subject” 30
Challenging Dualistic Thinking 32
Language, Truth, and Images of Power 33
Conclusion: The Invisible Powerful Woman 34

     Responsibility vs. Dominance?
          Women, Men, and the Need for Power
     Interpersonal Influence: Resources, Tactics,
          and Gender Politics
Defining and Measuring the Power Motive 37
The Power Motive in Women and Men 39
Levels and Arousal of the Power Motive 40
Correlates of the Power Motive 40
Fear of Power 42
Gender, Roles, and the Power Motive 43
Responsibility and the Power Motive 44
Interacting in Power Situations: Further Clues about
Responsibility and Dominance 46
Culture and the Expression of the Power Motive 53
Conclusion: Power Motivation in Women and Men 54
Power, Resources, and Social Exchange 57
The Principle of Least Interest 57
The Psychology of Winning at Any Cost: Social Control
     as Its Own Reward 59
The Interplay Between Power Resources and
     Influence Strategies 60
Resources as Bases of Social Power 61
Strategies of Power Use 63
Gender and Other Predictors of Influence Strategy 65
Effects of Influence Strategies on Their Users 72
Conclusion: Gender and Interpersonal Influence 73

     Feeling Power: The Sense of Competence
          and Effectiveness
          The Structure of Power
Socialization Toward Helplessness 77
Childhood Learning about Control 77
Race Makes No Difference 80
Helplessness vs. Effectiveness 80
The Structure of Self-Image 80
Changing Patterns of Attribution 82
Freedom and Personal Responsibility 84
The Importance of Choice 84
Referent Power 86
Power Not at Someone Else’s Expense 87
Personal Empowerment 88
Conclusion: Women and Men Feeling Powerful 90
Defining Dominance 94
Psychological and Ethological Research on Dominance 94
Studies of Dominance Among Non-Human Animals 96
Dominance Among Human Males and Females 98
Dominance According to Social Custom 100
Biological and Evolutionary Roots of Male Dominance 102
Social Roots of Male Dominance 105
Signals of Dominance and Submission 109
Maintaining the Gender Power Relations System 109
Environmental Symbols of Dominance 113
Conclusion: Sex as a “Master Status” 114

     Power, Sexuality, and Reproduction
     Power in the Family
Sexuality as an Interpersonal Power Resource 11 8
Sexual Attraction and Sexual Activity 119
Prostitution 119
Who Uses Sexual Availability as a Power Resource? 120
Sexual Blackmail 121
Childbearing: Woman’s Power or Woman’s
Vulnerability? 123
Developments in New Reproductive Technology 125
Whose Choice? 126
Social Expressions of Male Sexual Dominance 127
The Language of Sexuality 127
The Power of Pornography 128
Sexual Violence 129
The Myth of the Willing Victim 131
Personal Power, Sexuality, and Responsibility 133
Conclusion: Sexuality, Dominance, and
the Double Standard 135
Sources of Power in the Family 139
Resources and Family Power 141
The Division of Labor and Control
     over Economic Resources 141
Love and Family Bonds as Power Resources 145
Violence and Power in the Family 147
Culture, Norms, and Family Power 149
Family Centrality and Power 153
Conclusion: Paradoxes of Family Power 155

     Power in the Workplace
     Gender, Power, and Politics
Access to (Good) Employment 159
Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination 159
Attitudes Toward “Woman’s Place in Man’s World” 163
Occupational Segregation 165
Gender and Marginality or Centrality at Work 166
Tokens in the Workplace 166
Are Women Outsiders in a Male-Defined Workplace? 167
Leadership and Interpersonal Power in the Workplace 170
Power Begets Power 170
Differing Styles 172
Equalizing Power? Affirmative Action and Pay Equity 173
Perception (or Denial) of Discrimination 174
Support for Affirmative Action 175
Conclusion: Gender, Exclusion, and Marginality 177
Group Identification and the Growth of Political Awareness 180
Women as a Minority Group? 180
The Perception of Justice 182
Political Consciousness 183
Political Action 188
Gender Differences and Similarities in Political Participation 188
Resistance to Female-Male Equality 194
The Politics of Exclusion 194
The Politics of Legitimacy 195
Conclusion: Votes and Voice 196
     Epilogue: The Future 198  
References 201  
  Subject Index 220
  Author Index 240   
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  Last updated May 20th, 2013