Questions (see answers below)

1.  How would the 1000 administrative and electoral districts be organized?

2.  How would the 20 administrative and electoral regions be organized?

3.  Point of the Constitution states " One national delegate from each nation at least 100,000 population, but less than 10,000,000 population." of the Constitution states " Two national delegate from each nation at least 10,000,000 population, but less than 100,000,000 population".

Q: Does this mean that large population countries will have more voting power than smaller nations? This is very much like the present situation in the UN.

4. Which exactly is the education proposed to change the world crises?

Can we propose an educational system?

5. Art 12.1

Equal rights for all. However, there has been a problem between some traditions and equal rights, particularly concerning women. How are we going to deal with that sensitive issue?

6. We need more information on the transition of the present economic system and the economic system proposed by the Constitution. For example, where exactly would the new currency come from?

7. 10.3.5 "World police shall be armed only with weapons appropriate for the apprehension of the individuals responsible for the violation of the world law." What are "necessary arms". Who defines this?



The Questions with Answers


  1. How would the 1000 administrative and electoral districts be organized?

    The districts are to be defined by the World Boundaries and Elections Administration (Article 8.3). They are to conform as closely as posible to existing state and national borders but must also be closely equal in population since they are the basis of a system of equal representation of the citizens of Earth in the House of Peoples.

    In fact, however, since Article 17 gives alternatives to the ratification process that include direct election by the People of Earth (independently of nations), these districts must also be defined in advance by provisional World Government. Years ago, a WCPA member from Canada, Hanna Newcomb, began work on this. Her work is preserved and affirmed in World Legislative Act number 29, the Elections Act, passed at the 8th sesión of the Provisional World Parliament.

  2. How would the 20 administrative and electoral regions be organized?

Article 2.9 states that these regions shall be continental, as far as posible. They would also conform as far as posible to contiguous sets of World electoral districts and national borders. Article 4.6 gives the Earth Federation government the authority and power to do this. Again, this process has been enabled by World Legislative Act 29 which provides enabling legislation for the World Boundaries and Elections Adminsitration. Eugenia Almand can send you a chart of these districts as they have been thus far defined base don Hanna Newcomb’s work:

3. Point of the Constitution states " One national delegate from each nation at least 100,000 population, but less than 10,000,000 population." of the Constitution states " Two national delegate from each nation at least 10,000,000 population, but less than 100,000,000 population".

Q: Does this mean that large population countries will have more voting power than smaller nations? This is very much like the present situation in the UN.

The House of Nations is organized differently from the UN which actually gives only one vote to each of the 193 members states, meaning that some tiny island in the Pacific Ocean can have a vote equal to China or India with a billion people each. The UN is dominated by the big nations because of funding and power differentials, not because of the number of votes.

In a system that intends to be truly democratic, money is taken out of the equation, as is military and economic power. What is left, the legitimate basis for distinctions, is population. The granting of 3 representatives to nations over 100,000 in population is an attempt to make the House of Nations much more democratic than it would be if each nation had one equal vote. In democracy, differences in influence must be based on rational grounds such as population represented, not on irrational power grounds.

4. Which exactly is the education proposed to change the world crises?

Can we propose an educational system?

The Constitution cannot be changed for it is being presented to the world as a finished document ready for ratification, but any ideas consistent with the Constitution or enabling various features of the Earth Federation (such as Education) can be proposed to the Provisional World Parliament, which has been handling such matters since 1983 and is now moving toward its 13th session.

It is important, before proposing anything, however, not only to be familiar with the Constitution but also with the legislation and resolutions already passed by the Provisional World Parliament. In fact there already is an Education Act: World legislative Act number 26. Found at

5. Art 12.1

Equal rights for all. However, there has been a problem between some traditions and equal rights, particularly concerning women. How are we going to deal with that sensitive issue?

Indeed, there are some cultures and some religious traditions that deny rights to minorities or to women. The Earth Constitution takes its stand on universal human dignity and hence on the "inalienable Rights" identified in Article 12 and extended in Article 13. These human rights embody the truth of our human situation. They are not cultural constructs but the articulations of our common and universal human dignity. Hence, nations and cultures that deny rights to women will have to change their traditions. An enlightened and thoughtful Islam sees women as having equal rights and dignity, as does a thoughtful and enlightened Christianity.

Here is a portion of what I recently wrote to feminist scholar and author Dr. Kathleen Barry:

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth provides a global social contract for the people of Earth. Like democratic social contract theorists of the 18th century such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant, the Earth Constitution provides the framework for the self-determination of all persons subject to the Earth Federation government. It recognizes that the primary subject of human rights and responsibilities is the human person. As we shall see below, the assignment of rights to groups (including nations) raises immense difficulties that must be examined very closely and dealt with carefully, because the concept of group rights appears to generate antinomies in conflict with the human rights of the individuals who compose these groups.

The Constitution establishes as "inalienable" the range of democratic political rights such as freedom of thought, speech, assembly, religion, press, travel, etc., under the heading of "equal rights for all citizens of the Federation of Earth, with no discrimination on the grounds of race, color, caste, nationality, sex, religion, political affiliation, property or social status" (12.1). As we saw above, such civil protections under democratic government do not impose something alien on the citizens who are bearers of these rights but rather make possible their self-determination. "Freedom" is not the right or ability to do whatever one likes regardless of the framework provided by society, nor is it license within a condition of anarchy. Freedom is engendered, established, activated, only through the social contract provided by democratic government.

Article 13 of the Earth Constitution establishes the conditions for personal self-determination with great power and insight: equal opportunity for everyone (13.1), freedom of choice in work or profession (13.2), full access to the accumulated knowledge of the human race (13.3), free and adequate public education for everyone (13.4), free and adequate medical care for everyone (13.5), assurance for everyone of adequate housing, food, and safe water supplies (13.11), and social security for everyone (13.13). As Gewirth asserts, the rights to political freedom (Article 12 of the Constitution) must necessarily be complemented by the rights to well-being (Article 13). The cumulative effect of this social contract protecting the a priori right of people to self-determination is identified as "assure to each child the right to the full realization of his or her potential" (13.12). In other words, the conditions for self-determination must be there a priori in an effective social contract before self-determination of persons becomes possible. It is what makes such self-determination possible.

As I tried to express in that article, WCPA does support group rights and group empowerment as far as possible, but I tried to point out the difficulties in this concept that I do not know how to surmount. Perhaps someone can address this issue and help define for me more clearly what "group rights" might mean? Groups should be empowered, and their group identity protected, and their diversity affirmed. I quoted the Constitution to this effect as best I could. But how do you protect the cultural identity and rights of a group that practices female genital mutilation? How do you protect the rights of the Islamic groups to force women to wear the burka? How do you protect a culture that says if a widowed woman remarries, she must give up her children to be raised by her former husband’s family? As long as groups do not dehumanize and violate the dignity of their members, then they can and should be empowered. But I do not see how we can give up individual rights in favor of group rights. The right to individual self-determination is the foundation for all legitimate good democratic government.

This does not always work in favor of so-called "western values." At the 5th session of the PWP in Malta in November 2000, we had several women there from Turkey who were wearing full black outfits that showed only their faces and hands and who would not shake hands with or touch a man. They told us that they were in a struggle with the government of Turkey which had prohibited the head coverings in the public universities of Turkey. Their professor, they said, was in prison at that time for insisting on wearing the head covering when teaching in classes. We supported their right to wear the head covering absolutely. People have the right to cultural or religious self-determination as long as it is real self-determination and not imposed on them.

Some legislation enabling the conversion of cultures that limit the rights of women or others might be developed and submitted to a session of the PWP. Right now, there are two World Legislative Acts that might bear on this issue, at least indirectly, World Legislative Act number 32, the Conflict Resolution Act and a pending act (drafted for the forthcoming 13th session) the Truth and Reconciliation Commissions Act. Both these will help cultures and communities move forward toward a fundamental respect for the self-determination of all their members, but we could still use legislation setting up commissions for a transition toward full equality for women in nations and communities joining the Earth Federation.

6. We need more information on the transition of the present economic system and the economic system proposed by the Constitution. For example, where exactly would the new currency come from?

Much work has been done on economics with respect to the Constitution, enlarging on Articles 4.17 and 8.7. The key passages in 8.7 are number and The key to understanding how the Earth Constitution is predicated on truly liberating economic principles (capable of ending poverty worldwide) lies in books like Ellen Hodgson Brown’s book Web of Debt. Most of the current world system is a debt based economic system. Money is "created" by governments as debt. But this need not be the case.

There are a number of provisional World Legislative Acts that are directed toward the economic transformation of the world under the Earth Federation, especially: WLA 02: World Economic Development Organization, WLA 07, Earth Federation Funding Corporation, WLA 11, Earth Financial Credit Corporation, WLA 18, World Revenue, WLA 22, the Equity Act, and WLA 52, the Economic Prosperity Act.

In Triumph of Civilization I summarize much of the content and sprit of these acts in a short bulleted list:

The principles behind the new, nonviolent, holistic economic and political democracy are simple and clear. They are all embodied in the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, establishing a peace system. A united Earth could easily implement these common sense principles:

    • Take banking, money creation, and a few other key aspects of the economy out of the hands of the oligarchy that now controls the economics of the Earth and place these under the democratic control of the people of Earth.
    • Empower local communities and economies through interest-free lines of credit and job creation for restoring the environment and building the infrastructure (including clean water, sanitation, eco-friendly industry, free quality health care, social security, and education) for a decent economy for all.
    • Empower people from the bottom up to take political control of their lives, communities, and businesses and to contribute their voices to the general will for governing of Spaceship Earth. The vast majority desire only freedom, peace, and reasonable prosperity.
    • Undertake worldwide programs to restore and clean-up the environment: including replanting forests, providing fresh water for all, restoration of farming land, clean oceans, etc., paying for these projects by primary created Earth Federation money that will activate local economies worldwide.
    • Eliminate weapons of war (including all weapons of mass destruction) from the Earth and prevent their further production by enforceable world law.
    • Represent, and dialogue with, all groups and peoples equally, taking grievances seriously and dealing thoughtfully and fairly with conflicts so that no group feels it has to turn to war, violence, or terrorism.
    • Protect and enforce equal human rights (both political and economic rights) equitably for all people on Earth within the context of worldwide conflict resolution programs designed to promote mutual understanding and security as well as reduce the felt need to resort to violence.
    • Provide the democratic agencies and institutions for monitoring the health of the planet, assessing new technologies, and planning for a sustainable future for our entire planet with all its people, ecosystems, and animals.

Any government can create money from nothing. It does not need gold, debt, or any other backing. Money is merely a medium for exchange of goods and services. It is the goods and services that have value, not the medium itself. What makes the medium valuable is that people are willing to recognize it as a valid medium of exchange. The obscuring of this simple truth is the giant deception that Wall Street has foisted on the world for two centuries now. Hence, public Earth Federation banking will have all the money necessary to empower people everywhere to reasonable prosperity. This is exactly what Article is about.

7. 10.3.5 "World police shall be armed only with weapons appropriate for the apprehension of the individuals responsible for the violation of the world law." What are "necessary arms". Who defines this?

WLA 14, the World Security Act, has some material on the World Police and their use of weapons. But the basic principle here is that in a civilized world order there will be no war and no reasons for war, since due process of law will apply to all individuals within the Earth Federation, and proper law covers the behavior of individuals and holds individuals responsible for their conduct. One can no longer hide under the slogan "I acted as Head of state" or "I was only obeying orders." If only and all individuals are responsible to the law, then civilian world police will only need weapons necessary for apprehending individuals, no bombs, warplanes or ships, missiles, etc.

What these will be, of course, depend on the state of technology at the time. The exact weapons allowed to the World Police will be determined by the World Parliament. A Constitution only provides a framework for democratic legislation and due process, not the specific content. Here is what I wrote about the World Police in Triumph of Civilization (pp. 265-272):

Given the truth that nonviolence can be institutionalized to minimize the use of force in human relations, what will the nonviolent democratic world government look like? How will its police behave? How will it deal with terrorism, killers, or violent dissidents? The Constitution for the Federation of Earth provides the framework for a nonviolent world order. We have seen that this framework requires both genuine democracy and general economic prosperity with an end to economic exploitation. Article 10, "The Enforcement System," makes the following declaration concerning enforcement by the World Police force:

  1. The enforcement of world law and world legislation shall apply directly to individuals, and individuals shall be held responsible for compliance with world law and world legislation regardless of whether the individuals are acting in their own capacity or as agents or officials of governments at any level or of the institutions of governments, or as agents or officials of corporations, organizations, associations or groups of any kind.
  2. When world law or world legislation or decisions of the world courts are violated, the Enforcement System shall operate to identify and apprehend the individuals responsible for violations.
  3. Any enforcement action shall not violate the civil and human rights guaranteed under this World Constitution.
  4. The enforcement of world law and world legislation shall be carried out in the context of a non military world federation wherein all member nations shall disarm as a condition for joining and benefitting from the world federation, subject to Article X VII, Sec. C 8 and D 6. The Federation of Earth and World Government under this World Constitution shall neither keep nor use weapons of mass destruction.
  5. Those agents of the enforcement system whose function shall be to apprehend and bring to court violators of world law and world legislation shall be equipped only with such weapons as are appropriate for the apprehension of the individuals responsible for violations.
  6. The enforcement of world law and world legislation under this World Constitution shall be conceived and developed primarily as the processes of effective design and administration of world law and world legislation to serve the welfare of all people on Earth, with equity and justice for all, in which the resources of Earth and the funds and the credits of the World Government are used only to serve peaceful human needs, and none used for weapons of mass destruction or for war making capabilities.

This set of six principles defines the framework for the operation of the World Police and the possession of weapons. No legitimate government or democracy requires a military apparatus, since all democratic legislation applies to individuals, not governments, institutions, or corporations. Militaries are organized for mass destruction of some perceived "enemy," not for the apprehension of individuals according to the due process of law.

Once the international anarchy and chaos of the system of "sovereign" nation-states is replaced with real world law and a federation of nations, militaries will no longer be necessary. "Nations will no longer lift up their sword against nations." At this point, enforcement will only need to apply to individuals. Therefore, the police under democratic world law "shall be equipped only with such weapons as are appropriate for the apprehension of the individuals responsible for violations." They will possess no weapons of war. The triumph of civilization will have begun.

Since a constitution provides a framework, not a body of specific laws, the question of what weapons allowed the World Police is left to the World Parliament to decide. However, they must be only those necessary to apprehend individuals. All tanks, warships, warplanes, bombs, missiles, etc., are necessarily excluded since these are military weapons, not those necessary to apprehend individuals using a minimum of force while protecting the rights and safety of all concerned. The philosophy of nonviolence implies exactly this social transformation to the point where the use of force is minimized in human relations.

(Note: a version of section 9.1 was first published as part of Chapter Six of World Revolution Through World Law, IED Press, 2005.)

Triumph of Civilization, section 9.2 Civilian Police versus Military Force

It is very important here to distinguish between the role of civilian police and the role of military force, including a militarized police force. Military institutions destroy democracy and freedom both within and without individual nation-states, as we have seen, for democracy itself requires a nonviolent institutional framework that is incompatible with militarism. This is why the world government cannot be militarized, not because of some utopian idea that human beings will be without conflict or without requiring the occasional use of force.

The innermost meaning of democracy as a world society organized as a community of rights on the principle of unity in diversity is only possible under non-military democratic world government. Any militarized society will inhibit the solidarity and mutual respect among all people that lies at the heart of genuine democracy. Military doctrine and practice, we have seen, are incompatible with with the principles of both due process of law and individual accountability.

Civilian police, on the other hand (the only kind of police allowed under the Constitution) are accountable to the citizens for their behavior, their obedience to the law, their use of force, and their job security. We already have a measure of this in many cities that require a civilian review board to monitor police behavior. Civilian police are normally mandated to use (and can be trained to use) the minimum force necessary to apprehend individuals suspected of crimes. But these police under the Earth Federation will operate on a qualitatively different basis from that of police within traditional sovereign nation-states.

The World Police are required to respect the rights of all citizens, to "protect and serve." A nonviolent set of governmental institutions would insist that police are highly trained and educated in the proper function of a civilian police force. Police within a genuine democracy are mandated to use the minimum necessary force, and to make every effort to use non-lethal force. Their role will be that of peacemakers and community builders, in addition to being merely law enforcers.

It only makes sense that their weapons would be more and more non-lethal as technology in non-lethal weaponry advances. Stun guns, propelled body nets, non-lethal darts, and other technology of non-lethal weaponry yet to be developed will likely become the stock and trade of the World Police. It may well be that in most instances the World Police will not find it necessary to carry weapons at all. There is much evidence that de-escalation of the readiness for violence tends to result in the de-escalation of violence. The World Police are under mandate to weaken and ultimately break the cycle of violence.

A civilian police force within a framework of real democratic justice, respect for individual rights, and freedom will be tasked to continually examine how it can accomplish its mission of effectively apprehending criminals while at the same time continually maximizing the safety of themselves, those apprehended, and innocent bystanders. Very high quality training and education will necessarily supplement whatever weapons are authorized by the World Parliament. Police will be trained in nonviolent techniques of apprehension and arrest (and in self-defense techniques such as judo) as well as in the techniques of minimum use of necessary force, de-escalation, and conflict resolution.

The Constitution also leaves open for the World Parliament to legislate what weapons are acceptable for private individuals. A constitution is not a blueprint. Many decisions must be made through the democratic processes set up by the Constitution. However, the Provisional World Parliament has already passed provisional world laws in this regard specifying that individuals may possess only those weapons also permitted to the World Police.

Provisional world laws are not binding on the established World Parliament once it has been activated. They serve as guidelines, models, and a preliminary groundwork. This particular provisional world law of the Provisional Parliament was controversial and by no means unanimous, yet it appears consistent with the Constitution’s founding premise of the dignity and inviolable rights of every individual on Earth, including the right to self-defense. We saw above that Gandhi affirmed even the use of force in defense of one’s self and loved-ones if a person lacked the capacity to do this nonviolently.

The Provisional World Parliament has followed the Constitution closely by outlawing the design, development, sale, transportation, or possession of all weapons of war for individuals, groups, corporations, governments, and even the world government. Weapons of war are illegal under the Constitution even though the World Parliament will define what personal weapons are available to world citizens and the World Police. If the established World Parliament sees fit to follow the Provisional World Parliament in allowing individuals the same weapons as it allows the World Police, this may serve as an incentive for the World Police to develop ever-more and better non-lethal forms of apprehension and arrest and to progressively eliminate lethal weapons. Article 12 of the Constitution gives each citizen of the Earth Federation the following rights:

  • Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests.
  • Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment.
  • Right of habeas corpus; no ex post facto laws; no double jeopardy; right to refuse self incrimination or the incrimination of another.
  • Prohibition against private armies and paramilitary organizations as being threats to the common peace and safety.
  • Safety of property from arbitrary seizure; protection against exercise of the power of eminent domain without reasonable compensation.
  • Right of privacy of person, family and association; prohibition against surveillance as a means of political control.

The security, safety, and freedom of citizens is clearly a primary focus of the Constitution. And, given what we have seen in this volume, it should be clear that the Earth Federation will be nonviolent regardless of whatever stun-guns, handguns, pepper spray canisters, or rifles citizens are allowed to possess. If people feel they need to possess these items, they will do so. But given the framework of a deeply nonviolent society that is built by the Constitution (in which true democracy is realized and institutionalized violence and exploitation are eliminated), it is unlikely that many will feel this need.

The law could easily maximize their freedoms in this regard without the fear that there would be many people using such weapons to break the law or do violence. This list of rights possesses a fundamental difference from the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights that duplicates many of the rights in Article 12. For the U.N. Declaration is "merely symbolic." It has no legal force. Whereas under the Earth Constitution, the people of Earth have an enforceable legal right to these protections, and numerous effective legal options through which to ensure these protections are carried out.

As Gandhi made clear, if we will create real democracy on Earth, and real economic justice and prosperity on Earth, then we must institutionalize nonviolence. With today’s system of militarized "sovereign" nation-states and vast disparities between extreme wealth and extreme poverty, we have institutionalized violence. This violence requires the military to enforce its global system of injustice and exploitation. But if we ratify the Constitution for the Federation of Earth and create world institutions premised on the dignity, freedom, and equality of every person on Earth, we will eliminate the perceived need not only for the military but also for most personal or terrorist violence. And what is even more fundamental, we will have laid the groundwork for a transformation of the human spirit.

Today, the human spirit is distorted by the violent institutions that pervade our lives. The process of realizing a democratic world order under the Constitution may be marred by having to contend with the violence of the nation-states that currently eat, sleep, and breathe violence through their every institution. As we have seen above, the people of Earth (and each of us insofar as we act from what is universal in ourselves) not only have the right, but the duty to create democratic world government and exit the immoral state of defacto war and institutionalized violence under which we are currently forced to live.

Under Article Nineteen of the Constitution, the people of Earth have the mandate to elaborate the institutions of provisional world government until such time as the Constitution has been formally ratified according to the provisions set forth in Article Seventeen. This means we are building what is sometimes called a "parallel government" to the ones currently falsely claiming legitimacy in the world. This "parallel government" is not a competing claim to nation-statehood, of course, but includes the invitation to all national governments to reclaim their legitimacy and integrity by becoming part of the emerging Earth Federation. In this regard, it is not "parallel" at all but the entity representing the sovereignty of the people of Earth capable of restoring the legitimacy of the national governments as well as eliminating their violent and unjust characteristics.

Yet in our efforts to elaborate the infrastructure of world government, members of the emerging Earth Federation avail themselves of many of the techniques of nonviolent action. Professor Gene Sharp in Part Two of The Politics of Nonviolent Action entitled The Methods of Nonviolent Action, lists 198 techniques or methods of nonviolent struggle. Number 198 is listed as "dual sovereignty and parallel government." Sharp writes:

This method involves the creation of a new government, or continued loyalty to an existing rival government to that of the opponent. If the parallel government receives overwhelming support from the populace, it may replace the opponent’s established government....This general phenomenon has occurred in a variety of situations and is by no means a product of twentieth century revolutions. (1985: 423)

Sharp goes on to describe historical examples of when this method was used, often without conscious intent as a nonviolent method. He describes the Netherlands struggle against the Spanish king in 1575-77, the conflict in England between Charles and the Long Parliament during the 1640s, the struggle during U.S. revolutionary times between the Continental Congress and British rule, "Door’s Rebellion" in Rhode Island in 1841-42, the Russian Revolution of 1905, and again of 1917, the general strike in Winnipeg, Canada, in 1919, the Indian struggle against the British, especially during the 1930-31 campaign, and the contest in China between the Japanese and the "Border Government" during the 1930s.

Given this long history of transformative movements developing an alternative government to replace or parallel an existing government, one can say that the work of the Provisional World Parliament and the members of the emerging Earth Federation are definitely engaged with time-honored methods of nonviolent action. As the institutions of the Federation develop (assuming the Constitution has not yet been ratified by the people and nations of Earth) we will be elaborating the world ministries, the World Parliament, the world courts, and the world enforcement system of police and attorneys general.

The World Police may be called upon to apprehend criminals (for example, any persons engaged in weapons research, design, manufacture, transport, sale, purchase, or deployment, which are all criminal activities under existing provisional world law). From what has been said above, it should be clear that even the provisional World Police will be well trained in what it means to be a civilian police officer within a genuine democracy.

That is, they will be trained to use the minimum force necessary to apprehend the suspect, protect themselves, ensure the safety of innocent bystanders, and follow due-process procedures ensuring the rights of all.

In addition, citizens (as well as the World Ombudsmus) will be free to monitor the behavior of the police to be sure that they fulfill their function of reducing the use of force to a minimum. Provisional World Legislative Act 14.3 reads in part as follows:

Civil Empowerment. Behavior of World Police Officers while on duty may be freely audited by both non-interfering private Earth citizens and by the World Ombudsmus, to assure compliance to least necessary force and to appropriate behavior on the part of the Enforcement System. The World Ombudsmus and Earth Citizens may file legal complaints or legal charges, and seek rectification for damages arising from the improper use of weapons. At which time the World Police begins its formation and forever thereafter, the World Police Force may develop, use and possess only weapons legal to the citizens of the Earth Federation without requirement of permit, registration or disclosure.


The World Police under the Earth Federation will be truly servants and protectors of the people as this passage states. Under provisional world law as it now stands, world citizens may possess any weapons possessed by the world police "without requirement of permit, registration or disclosure." Nonviolence, as well as the right of citizens to self-defense, is therefore institutionalized within both the Constitution and Provisional World Law.

This is practical and commonsense nonviolence in action. It does not demand some utopian abjuring of all reasonable use of force. It clearly forbids an "intention to do harm to the opponent" that Gandhi says is a defining characteristic of violence. It does not assume some "peaceful human nature" or conflict-free future for humanity. Human intelligence can build communities of rights and solidarity. "Human nature" is extremely flexible. When the levels of suffering, fear, and tension are reduced, the level of violence is also reduced.

Nonviolence involves action in the service of authentic democracy, which is necessarily nonviolent to every extent possible. It is also action in the service of the nonviolent method of developing a "parallel government" that appeals to the allegiance to the people of Earth precisely because it is democratic, just, liberating, and nonviolent. Just as "violent means" inevitably lead to violent results (as the institutionalized violence of today’s world illustrates), so nonviolent means are the only legitimate transformative strategy to realize a truly new and fundamental goal: a nonviolent world democracy of justice, freedom, equality, and peace.



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