(1) Two brief Histories of the Provisional World Parliament and the
The relation of the
Earth Constitution to the United Nations (by Eugenia Almand)
Authority and Legitimacy of the Earth Constitution: Response to Basic
Questions (by Eugenia Almand)
Resumen de la
Constitución para la Federación de la Tierra
A Meeting with President Ayadema of Togo in 2003
From left to right: Dr. Eugenia Almand, Deputy
Secretary-General of the World Constitution and Parliament Association and
Secretary of the Provisional World Parliament, Dr. Terence P.
Amerasinghe, President of the World Constitution and Parliament Association
and President of the Provisional World Parliament, and Dr. Dominique Balouki,
WCPA Coordinator for Africa, President Ayadema.
WCPA-PWP Brief History
1958. Agreement to Call a World Constitutional Convention initiated by four
persons, circulated worldwide for signatures, requesting both national
governments and people of each country to send delegates.
1959-1960. World Committee for a World Constitutional Convention formed.
Thousands sign the Agreement, including many prominent leaders. Organizers
of this action travel around the world to enlist support.
1961-1962. Definitive Call to the World Constitutional Convention adopted.
Many persons sign, including Heads of five national governments.
1963-1964. First Preparatory Congress held Denver, Colorado, USA, with
delegates from five continents. Call to the World Constitutional Convention
is publicly issued, then circulated for more signers and response.
1965-1966. Second Preparatory Congress held at Milan, Italy. Outline for
Debate and Drafting of a World Constitution is formulated, on basis on
alternative choices. Plan agreed for a Peoples’ World Parliament to meet
1967. Decision made at Third Preparatory Congress to begin Convention in
1968, even if no government sends delegates. 300 Peoples Delegates pledged.
1968. First working sessions of World Constitutional Convention and Peoples’
World Convention held at Interlaken, Switzerland, and Wolfach, W. Germany
with 200 Peoples Delegates from 27 countries, of five continents. Work begun
on drafting the World Constitution.
Some photos of
the early pioneers
1969-1971. Strategy for Reclaiming Earth for Humanity is circulated.
Emergency Council of World Trustees meets, Santa Barbara, Calif., and issues
First Decree for Protection of Life, outlawing nuclear weapons. Directions
given to drafting commission.
1972. World Constitution drafting commission of four persons works for two
months, almost completes first draft of Constitution for the Federation of
1973-1975. First draft finished, printed in 1974, then circulated worldwide
for comment, together with Call to the second session in 1977, now defined
as the World Constituent Assembly. Comments on first draft complied.
1976. Drafting Commission meets again. Second draft completed, circulated,
1977. Second Session of World Constituent Assembly held in June, Innsbruck,
Austria. Earth Constitution debated paragraph by paragraph, amended, then
adopted with 138 original signers from 25 countries of 6 continents. Call
for ratification by the nations and peoples of Earth is issued. Constitution
is sent to U.N. General Assembly and to all national governments.
1978-1980. Earth Constitution is circulated worldwide for debate and
ratification. Third session of World Constituent Assembly held January,
1979, Colombo, Sri Lanka; adopts Rationale For a World Constituent Assembly,
defining right of people to convene Assembly, draft constitution, and obtain
ratification. Appeal issued for national parliaments to ratify.
1981. World Constitution & Parliament Assn. meets at New Delhi, India. Call
issued for Provisional World Parliament to convene 1982 under terms of
Article 19 of the Earth Constitution. Honorary Sponsor list of 150 prominent
1982. First Session of Provisional World Parliament meets at Brighton,
England. Delegates form 25 countries of 6 continents. Five world Legislative
Acts are adopted: for World Disarmament Agency, World Economic Development,
Ownership of Oceans & Seabeds, Graduate School of World Problems, and World
1983-1984. First Provisional District World Court organized in Los Angeles;
takes up case of outlawing nuclear weapons. Plans for Provisional World
Parliament in Sudan and Nigeria thwarted by military coups.
1985. Second Session of Provisional World Parliament held New Delhi, India.
Opened by President of India, presided by speaker of Lok Sabha. Three more
World Legislative Acts adopted: for Emergency Earth Rescue Administration,
World Government Funding, and Commission on Terrorism.
1986. Campaign continued for “provisional” ratification of the Constitution
for the Federation of Earth, pending review at next World Constituent
1987. Third session of Provisional World Parliament held Miami Beach,
Florida. Three more World Legislative Acts are adopted: for Global Finance
System, Environment Protection, and Hydrogen Energy. Provisional World
1988-1989. Plan launched for collaboration by many organizations to prepare
next session of World Constituent Assembly. 150 organizations join in
Preparatory Committee. Two meetings held in New York with U. N. Ambassadors,
to explain and solicit help. List of Honorary Sponsors reconfirmed and
1990. Government of Egypt agrees to host Assembly. Three preparatory
meetings held. Call circulated for Governments and People to send delegates.
1991. Location of 4th session World Constituent Assembly abruptly changed
due to the 1991 Gulf War. Held at Troia, Portugal, in May. Delegates adopt
59 minor amendments to the Earth Constitution. New ratification campaign
begun, appealing to both people and governments. Most Honorary Sponsors
1992. Global Ratification & Elections Network organized, including several
hundred organizations, to promote ratification of the Constitution for the
Federation of Earth, then election of delegates to World Parliament.
Government heads should also ratify.
1996. The Fourth Session of the Provisional World Parliament held at
Barcelona, Spain in September. A number of resolutions passed as well as a
“Manifesto” declaring the oceans the property of the people of Earth under
the authority of the Earth Constitution.
2000. The Fifth Session of the Provisional World Parliament is held on the
Island of Malta, November 22nd to 27th. One Omnibus legislative act and a
number of resolutions passed.
2003. The Sixth Session of the Provisional World Parliament held in Bangkok,
Thailand, March 23rd to 28th. Several important legislative acts passed: a
World Peace Act, a World Security Act, a Provisional Office of World Revenue
Act, a Hydrocarbon Resource Act, and a Statute for the World Court on Human
Rights. The Commission for Legislative Review is formed. Parliamentary law
format commenses with the Sixth Session.
2003. The Seventh Session of the Provisional World Parliament is held at
Chennai, India, December 23-29. Several important legislative acts passed: a
Criminal Penalty Code, Rules for Procedure and Evidence, a World Bench for
Criminal Cases Act, a World Patents Act, a Global Accounting and Auditing
Standards Act, and a Preservation of World Government Records Act. The
Manifesto of the Earth Federation (Chapter Three above) and the “Pledge of
Allegiance to the Earth Constitution” (part of Chapter Seven above) are
unamimously ratified by the Parliament.
2004. The Eighth Session of the Provisional World Parliament held at Lucknow,
India in August. Several important legislative acts passed, including
creation of a World Bench for Juvenile Cases, a Child Rights Act, an
Elections Act, and a Water Act. The International Criminal Court in the
Hague is empowered by world legislation. A global Education Act is passed as
well as a World Economic Equity Act establishing the Earth Currency on an
independent and fully democratic basis. A Global People’s Assembly is
created to activate grass roots participation in the House of Peoples. The
“Declaration on the Rights of Peoples” (part of Chapter Two above) is
2005-2006. Action begins for transforming the Global Ratification and
Elections Network into the Earth Federation Movement. Planning continues for
the Ninth Session of the Provisional World Parliament to be held in Libya,
Africa, February-March, 2006.
2007. The Tenth Session of the
Provisional World Parliament
in Kara, Togo
June. Four world legislative acts are passed: an act prohibiting
unauthorized destruction of illegal financial instruments, an act creating a
system of divestment from illegal weapons
an act requiring posting of the world illegal stock law in stock exchanges
around the world, and an act providing a guaranteed annual income for all
adults within the Earth
2008. The 50th Anniversary Celebrations of the
founding of WCPA hosted by Dr. Phichai Tovivich and the WCPA Chapter of
The Eleventh Session of the Provisional
in Nainital, India
, July 2-8, 2009. Several
world legislative acts were passed into provisional world law
, including a procedure
for the dismantling of nuclear weapons
, a law protecting the
people of Earth from too much bureaucracy in the world government
, an act criminalizing
human trafficking for sexual or other purposes, an act abolishing all secret
intelligence agencies like the CIA, M5 or Mossad, a bill elaborating the
restrictions on the military
of depleted uranium, and a law protecting the right of civil disobedience
for the people of Earth under the Earth Federation (included in this volume)
. The delegation from
the parliament with a new translation of the
Constitution into its 23rd
language: Bengali or Bangla
2010. June 1-11, IOWP officers participate in the General
Review Conference of the International Criminal Court in Kampala, Uganda,
with proposals to link the court with the
Earth Constitution. The Twelfth
Session of the Parliament held in Kolkata, India, December 27-31, 2010.
World Legislative Acts passed for funding the decommissioning of nuclear
weapons, abolishing legal corporate personhood, establishing a Collegium of
World Judges, establishing a Shipbreaking code, creating global economic
prosperity, and amending some earlier acts of the Parliament. Resolutions
were passed allowing states, cantons, or Pradesh to join the Earth
Federation independently, enumerating citizen and governmental
responsibilities under the Earth Federation, and modeling the world peace
system created by the Earth
2011. December-January. The Twelfth Session of the
Provisional World Parliament takes place in Kolkata, India. The Parliament
meets within the context of the giant World Peace Thinkers and Poets Meet
Conference sponsored by the World Constitution (WCPA), the International
Society for Intercultural Study and Research (ISISAR), and other
2012. December 9-14, Lucknow, India.
WCPA holds a global strategy meeting with WCPA activists from many
countries attending. The
meetings are in conjunction with the International Conference of Chief
Justices of the World in which 200 justices from countries around the world
gather in Lucknow to discuss world problems and the development of world
December 19-21, Lucknow, India. The Thirteenth Session of the Provisional
World Parliament took place simultaneously with the International Conference
of Chief Justices of the World at the World Unity Convention Center of the
City Montessori School of Lucknow. A number of key world legislative acts
were passed, including a Transition Act to facilitate countries joining the
Earth Federation and a Truth and Reconciliation Act.
2014. Work continues on the development of the 14th session of
the Parliament in Kolkata, India, December 2015. Work also continues
on the promotion of the Earth Constitution as a subject of study and a item
in the educational curriculum of institutions everywhere. Work
continues on the development of the Collegium of World Judges and the
constitution of a bench of the World Supreme Court.
Note: Most of the above legislative acts can be found on the website of IOWP (www.worldproblems.net). The full texts of all,
along with summaries and analyses, can be found in the forthcoming volume:
Emerging World Law, Eugenia Almand and Glen T. Martin, eds., Sun
City, AZ: Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2006.
Four basic documents with analysis, commentary, and background can be found
in World Revolution Through World Law - Basic Documents of the Emerging
Earth Federation, Edited, with an Introduction and Other Writings by
Glen T. Martin, Sun City, AZ: Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2005
by Eugenia Almand
Institute on World Problems
1. The World Government Movement. A
substantive history of the overall world government movement goes back
almost one hundred years. Understanding of the history of the overall world
government movement helps in the understanding of the substantive history of
the Provisional World Parliament, which goes back only about forty years.
Some historical lessons of the overall world government movement are on the
Internet. A few notable leaders include Rosika Schwimmer (the first woman
ambassador in the modern age, serving Hungary in Switzerland); Emery Reves,
who wrote Anatomy of Peace; Albert Einstein, who campaigned the last
ten years of his life for world government (not for the United Nations);
Garry Davis, who created (and still creates) certain legal and service
foundations for World Government; and hundreds of other eminent thinkers of
After the Montreux Conference of 1947 and the University of Chicago
Committee to Frame a World Constitution in 1948, many eminent thinkers were
convinced of the necessity for a constitutional basis for the creation of
any initial world parliamentary system.
2. Provisional World Parliaments under the Earth Constitution.
The Provisional World Parliaments have emerged interspersed with sessions of
the World Constituent Assembly, which is for drafting and improving the
Constitution for the Federation of Earth. The Earth Constitution defines the
basic structure and operation for provisional world government, world
government and the Provisional World Parliament.
The Provisional World Parliament has met
five times: Brighton, England in 1982; New Delhi, India in 1985; Miami
Beach, USA in 1987; Barcelona, Spain in 1996 and Qawra, Malta in 2000. The
first three meetings were stronger than the last two, based upon the
proposed bills, the number of participants, and the favorable interest of
Notably, the Second session in New Delhi
was inaugurated by the India government itself, although the India
government did not go so far as to ratify the Earth Constitution to make
itself an official participant. The then President of India Zail Singh
inaugurated, and the then Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Hon. Bal Ram Jakhar,
served as speaker of the Provisional World Parliament. It was national
headlines at the time.
The third session of the
Provisional World Parliament was held at the Prestigious Fountainbleu Hotel
in Miami Beach. It was not given the same media attention as the second
session. The most notable dignitary to briefly visit the session was the
then Speaker of the US House of Representatives, Tip O'Neill.
The fourth session was to convene at
Innsbruck, Austria. Due to denial of visas to our delegates by national
governments, this was changed to the Principality of Andorra, and then
finally to Barcelona. The parliament's legislative program was not strong,
but the Parliament did succeed in adopting important amendments to two of
the world legislative acts, number 6, to help vitalize the oceans, and
number 11, to strengthen the fiscal system for implementation of the
The fifth session of the Provisional
World Parliament was to meet in Baghdad, Iraq, then Syrt, Libya, and finally
in Qawra, Malta. Again the changes of venue were due to world tensions and
the politics of nation-states. At this Parliament several significant
resolutions were passed, but there was only one legislative bill debated, an
omnibus bill left over from the fourth session.
3. Organization of the Sixth Session of the PWP.
Soon after the fifth session, the 87 year old Secretary General (Philip
Isely) of the then organizing agent (the World Constitution and Parliament
Association) became very seriously ill for about two months. It was thought
by the doctors that he would probably die. He slowly recovered. However,
since his recovery he has not laid out or effected strong plans for the
growth of the program. He closed his office, except for a single worker,
primarily to handle personal bills. Virtually all his moments, finances and
energy has been spent in recuperation, with practically no communication to
the dedicated parliamentarians who would like to see the movement continue
We several concerned members of the
Parliament have sensed it necessary to continue drawing up plans for the
continuity of the Provisional World Parliament, even though this former
important contributor is not able to participate. As officers in the
Graduate School of World Problems and the newly created Institute on World
Problems, we have continued the work of organizing Provisional World
Parliaments. We have introduced several new focuses for the movement: (1)
Professionalize the quality of the legislation by adopting stringent
drafting guidelines; (2) Professionalize the quality of the deliberations by
strong encouragement of knowledge and conformity to well-established
parliamentary rules of order; (3) Complete the enabling legislation for the
primary organs of the Provisional World Government, as defined by the Earth
Constitution; (4) Converge the movements of Provisional World Government by
officially adopting best practices from world government organizations
formerly outside of the Provisional World Parliament and its former
The sixth session of the Provisional
World Parliament was particularly vital, since it deliberated legislative
bills regarding each of the above four points. Earlier, there were no
drafting guidelines for world legislation. Unlike the Earth Constitution,
much of the world legislation was drafted by persons and committees that
were concerned world citizens, but who did not have a strong background in
law and legislation. This resulted in an unstandardized codification system
and a multitude of ambiguous legislative provisions.
These two errors make it more difficult
for established parliamentary governments to seriously consider the great
value of the world legislation. With a professional level drafting code,
this problem can properly be addressed. See professional code at
http://www.lc.state.or.us/pdfs/dmchp2.pdf Formerly, some
leaders of organizing agent for the Parliament felt that knowledge of
parliamentary law by the participants to sessions of the Provisional World
Parliament was not desirable, because it could result in the members of the
Parliament taking control of the Session.
However, experience has shown that a lack
of knowledge of the basic rules of parliamentary procedure leads to a more
nefarious condition, in which the members are unclear of how to conduct
business. A tiny unparliamentary faction can easily wrest control under such
circumstances of ignorance. The strength of the parliament wanes, if it is
merely a meeting called a parliament, but its members are not participating
as parliamentarians with a knowledge of basic parliamentary rules.
The Provisional World Parliament
recognizes Robert's Rules of Order, as well as Erskine May Code. However,
Robert's Rules are more universally available and are therefore of stronger
applicability. Vital enabling legislation has to do with inaugurating the
functions of the World Ombudsmus and of the Enforcement System, as defined
in the Earth Constitution.
The World Security Act Bill addresses the
creation of a true non-military enforcement system. The Human Rights Court
Bill addresses the foundations for the World Ombudmus. Also, the Human
Rights Court Bill is a vital outgrowth of the World Government of World
Citizens, which means that with the adoption of the bill as an Act, a
convergence of world government organizations is likewise implemented.
4. Numbers of participants and sessions of the Provisional World
Parliament. Sessions of the Provisional World
Parliament have never been giant affairs. At the inaugural first session,
there were over one hundred members. However, at subsequent sessions, there
have generally been about fifty members, more or less, with up to one
hundred fifty or so observers at some sessions for some days. The Bangkok
session of the Provisional World Parliament had over about fifty working
members. We are concerned more with the quality of the bills and
deliberations than with the shear number of participants. More may
participate later, after we have established a solid comprehensive
foundation of good legislative code.
seventh Session of the Provisional World Parliament took place
December 26-30, 2003, at the Palmgrove Hotel, Chennai, India. All those who have personally ratified the
Constitution for the Federation of Earth and have agreed to work for its
ratification by the peoples and nations of Earth are welcome as delegates.
Interested persons may contact the Institute On World Problems (www.worldproblems.net).
6. The Eighth Session of the Provisional World
Parliament took place in August, 2004 in Lucknow, India, hosted by Sri
Gagdish Gandhi and the City Montessori School of Lucknow.
7. The Ninth Session of the Provisional World
Parliament is scheduled for Tripoli, Libya, April 11, 12, 13, and 14, 2006.
8. Steering Committee Provisional World Parliaments.
This description will not discuss the important Thai members of the Steering
Committee, because these will be more familiar to the Thai members of the
Committee than to us. They are prominent advocates for world peace and world
federation in East Asia. Members of the Steering Committee from the Graduate
School of World Problems and the Institute On World Problems are:
A. Dr. Terence P. Amerasinghe. Bar-at-Law, PhD, DEd. (1917-2007). Dr. Amerasinghe
studied Law at London University and was a member of Grey's Inn. He was the
President of Sri Lanka English Speaking Union, Vice President of World
Union, President of the Sri Lanka branch of the Universal Love and
Brotherhood Association (Oomoto Aizen-Kai), Co-President of the World
Constitution & Parliament Association for most years since its founding. Dr.
Amerasinghe served for many years as an advocate in the High Court of Sri
Lanka, and was professor to many persons who have been in Sri Lankan
government. He has served at times as either the Speaker or the Secretary of
the Provisional World Parliament, and was one of the five original primary
authors of the Constitution for the Federation of Earth.
B. Eugenia Almand. Ms. Almand has a Master's Degree in Computer
Education from California State University, Northridge. She has a Bilingual
Crosscultural Clear Credential (for teaching English as a second language,
preschool through adult) and is fluently literate and conversant in English,
Spanish and French. Her membership in the Provisional World Parliament goes
back to 1984. Though she had not directly worked with the World Peace Envoy
(Chair of the Disarmament Commission), she was appointed Deputy Chair of the
Disarmament Commission at the New Delhi session of the Provisional World
Parliament, and over the years has elaborated bills to address her
responsibilities therein. Since 1998, she have been building curriculum for
the Graduate School of World Problems and for the Institute On World
Problems. This curriculum includes emphasized study on parliamentary
procedure and professional legislative drafting. She served as Expeditor and
as Assistant Parliament Secretary at the fifth session of the Provisional
World Parliament at Malta in 2000.
C. Sir Dr. Reinhart Ruge. Dr. Reinhart Ruge is a retired civil
engineer from Mexico and a Knight of Malta. He has also been Co-President of
the World Constitution & Parliament Association for most years since its
founding. He has been the speaker or dignitary at all of the previous
Provisional World Parliaments. Dr. Ruge speaks Spanish, German and English,
and some other languages.
D. Dr. Glen Martin. Dr. Martin is a full professor of Philosophy and
Religious Studies at Radford University in Virginia, USA. He is President of
International Philosophers for Peace (IPPNO). He has been Vice-President of
the World Constitution and Parliament Association and an active and vocal
Member of the Provisional World Parliament since at least 1996.
E. John Ewbank and Marjorie Ewbank (now deceased). John Ewbank organized “Observers” for the Sixth Provisional World Parliament. John and Marjorie Ewbank
were Participants in the World Constituent Assemblies, to draft the
Constitution for the Federation of Earth. They were also regular
Members of the Provisional World Parliament since its inception in 1982.
John Ewbank was a patent attorney in Pennsylvania, USA. His wife Marjorie
President of American Movement for World Government.
The Relationship of the Earth
Constitution to the United Nations
The Earth Constitution was adopted in the real world in
1977, from which time it has not been promoted as an ideal, but rather as
the founded structure of our human government, albeit to begin consciously
only among a few of Earth’s world citizens. This document is the expression
of nimbleness, ready for eventualities.
Although Earth Constitution builds upon the agencies of
the United Nations, Earth Constitution does not snag on the expression of
the United Nations Charter, since the United Nations Charter is not the
expression of the People, and has no provisions whatsoever for the
expression of the People.
The United Nations itself undergoes transfer to the
paradigm of the Earth Constitution. This is inexorable, because from the
beginning the Earth Constitution has been embracing the viable United
Nations agencies. However, the Earth Constitution and the People of Earth
never voted for the UN Charter or the Security Council veto, nor made any
provision to recognize or retain these latter features.
(The veto was never our election. We the People said so back
in 1945. We expressed this officially and through coordinated declarations
our reservation regarding the UN Charter as early as 1947, with fuller
organized expressions in 1948. We continue to say so, even today.)
Since we did adopt the Earth Constitution to reconstitute
and integrate the United Nations system, yet never elected approval nor gave
authority as the People of Earth to the United Nations Charter, we the
People are not stakeholders regarding the veto. We are not bound by the
veto—only the Security Council is bound by the veto. Therefore, the veto is
the Security Council’s problem; the veto is not the problem of the People of
There is nowhere in the United Nations Charter where it
says that the People must overcome the veto in order to transform the United
Nations. It only says that the United Nations Charter requires the
affirmative assent of the Permanent Members for there to be "amendment to
the UN Charter." So who cares? The United Nations Charter is not asking for
The United Nations Charter is not the reflection of what
we regard as mature human society. Therefore, global democratic process
emerges in spite of any provision of the UN Charter, and definitely not
because the UN Charter granted permission, nor because the UN Charter
catalyzed for democratic change, because it did neither.
The Earth Constitution is the epitome of pragmatic,
realistic response. It is not the result of idealism. Earth Constitution is
not an ideal, and does not extol ideals, but rather is a description of the
People’s governing system. However, on the other hand, United Nations
Charter reform might be considered an ideal, a hoped-for dream, a possible
first step on a never-ending journey. But this is not to say that we should
abandon practical, realistic work in favor of idealism.
The Earth Constitution has provisions NOW for popular
electoral process—not "maybe, if we can someday get the permission of our
supposed overlords." The People operating in conformance with the Earth
Constitution steadily plan for the managed and regulated rapid growth of the
viable United Nations agencies. We have plans and strategies for exponential
growth and exponential funding of viable agencies at levels two orders of
magnitude beyond that which the Security Council could provide.
This planning is not an ideal, but rather our response to
the awareness of growing instabilities and dangers throughout the global
ecosystem and global society. This planning is not being done in isolation
from the viable agencies of the United Nations, but rather is a constructive
legislative building process that is not reinventing the wheel. The Earth
Constitution defines how we are winning with the United Nations.
However, the Charter Reform appeal does not describe how
people are winning. Instead, United Nations Charter reform asks for just a
little more time, and then maybe someone will allow democracy. Reform asks
for just a bit more unearned trust. Charter reform pleads for a renewed
volunteer effort for which no promise is yet kept.
We are supportive of dual-track approach to world
problems and to self-government for Earth and Earth’s people. So we need
people who are willing to work within the United Nations agencies as well as
people that work outside of United Nations agencies for change and
improvements to the human condition. We are not against democratization of
the United Nations. We ask that democracy be a primary means, and not
exclusively a projected end result of our work that would appear only to
some future generation.
Democratic process is now with the Earth Constitution and
the provisional Earth Federation, by whatever name. This democratic process
never needed to wait for the veto power to abdicate itself. In conformance
with the Earth Constitution and the laws of humanity, the Security Council
has the power to serve in an advisory capacity. In conformance with
universal law, as well as specific provisions of world statutory code, the
individuals representing in the Security Council are already accountable to
the world law now.
They must neither universally assent to any use or threat
of weapons of mass destruction, nor may they exercise veto in order to use
or threaten to use weapons of mass destruction. They may not know the world
laws, but these legal documents are in effect and are highly specific, and
not just in the hands of a few world citizens, but in the eyes of the Global
Public. The International Court acceded and adjudicated this officially in
The majority of nations created the Criminal Court from
1998 to 2002, and the People of Earth, in 2003, as represented by the provisional
World Parliament, have officially confirmed the operating and the authority
of the Criminal Court to function, within the conditions and guidelines
specified by World Law. There are no representatives with impunity
to the law at the global level.
So the Security Council can legally offer its
recommendation to the People of Earth. It cannot legally threaten war
against the Earth, nor can any of its members legally purport to represent
nuclear power against the Earth.
So the ascribed importance of the Security Council
withers and diminishes. The Security Council has nothing to do with
democratic process, but with some other matters. If Security Council
representatives purport to represent nuclear power, they individually might
find themselves in the Court docket, whether their national government
approves or not, whether their national government threatens to bomb or not.
Security Council public statements are all public, and
can be used in Court. There is no statute of limitations against prosecution
for the violation of world laws. There is no immunity from world law.
Therefore, Security Council officials’ role naturally diminishes and we can
focus on truly democratic processes that are independent of any veto or
unanimous affirmation, and that have nothing to do with the Security Council
or fixation upon the moot U.N. Charter.
Integration of the viable United Nations agencies is a
tremendous and challenging responsibility. We look forward to the democratic
participation of large numbers of world citizens from around the world to
assist and engage in this integration process. This integration can move
forward in a decentralized manner, because the nature of the change is
decentralizing. The Earth Constitution and the world legislative process
liberated by the Earth Constitution is the democratization of the United
Nations – from both within and without.
Let us all rise and build with this democratization!
Authority and Legitimacy of the Earth Constitution
Response to Basic Questions
1. Question: Who authorized the people of the
World to create the Earth Constitution?
Response: The people's authority needs no prior authorization, as
it is recognized as an inalienable human right: "The will of the people is
the basis of the authority of government; Universal and equal suffrage shall
express this will in periodic and genuine elections held by secret vote or
by equivalent free voting procedures." Article 21.3 UDHR. UDHR did not
this right to the people. UDHR simply recognized that it was there, and then
reaffirmed it. Earth Constitution posits the praxis as a global demand and
definition of our government at the global-level. The specific forms of our
Earth Federation can be adjusted through constituent process that recognizes
the principle of UDHR.21.3.
However, many of us also like to believe that if there
were God, and benign God, that God would grant blessing to the authority of
the people to draft and adopt the Earth Constitution and to move forward for
building the Earth Federation and obtaining ratification of the Earth
Constitution. So we count this responsibility as a sacred trust, whether we
are theists, atheist or agnostic (and whether or not the particular words
A sacred trust@
2. Question: Who will bear the expenses of the
Response: The Earth Federation itself can and must pay for the
Global Elections. This can be done on the principle of recognition of
Article 21.3 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, acceded to by
national governments virtually everywhere, as noted above. The Earth
Constitution is the only functioning adopted document to guarantee UDHR21.3.
Earth Constitution guarantees this inalienable right, therefore the document
is 100% legitimate even before the actual vote has been counted.
One may ask how can the Earth Federation pay for these
global elections? The Earth Constitution grants the power for establishing
universal accounting standards EC#4.9., and for raising revenues and funds
EC#4.16., for establishing financial, banking, credit institutions and for
issuing and regulating a global currency and credit EC#4.17., among other
fiscal powers of the Earth Federation. The World Accounting Standards were
established by provisional World Parliament in December 2003. For details go
and to www.iasb.org
. These are very highly defined and reputable. Further standards have been
developed specifically for the world legislatures by the Assembly of States
Parties. The provisional World Parliament will probably be deliberating
these further standards at the next session of provisional World Parliament.
The Assembly of States Parties has drawn up the Agreement
of the Privileges and Immunities of the World Court, which includes fiscal
provisions that draw independence beyond the World Bank and the
International Monetary Fund. These provisions will also be deliberated at
the next session of provisional World Parliament. If approved by the
provisional World Parliament, parliamentary allocations of real value can
begin with this upcoming session of the provisional World Parliament.
There is other significant fiscal world legislation,
especially world legislative acts #7- Earth Federation Funding Corporation,
11 B Earth Financial Credit
Corporation, 18-Provisional Office of World Revenue and 22. The Equity Act.
These all integrate for a comprehensive functioning global fiscal system.
Under the Earth Constitution and world legislation, those
who begin the process of the Earth Federation are not mere volunteers
possibly throwing their money away, but rather are investing their resources
C both time in effort, and other forms of money are counted,
including cash contributions. Under the provisions of the Earth Constitution
(EC#17.F) and Earth Federation Funding Corporation, those who have been
participating are guaranteed a double return on their investment, to be paid
back through installments after the first operative stage of Earth
Federation commences. The payback is in the valuable currency of the new
system, so there is no loss in equivalent double value and no difficulty
regarding balances of hard and soft currencies.
Thus, municipalities or provinces that correspond with
the World Districts can open ballot slots in their very next general
elections. The act would be a publicly recorded act, the cost of which could
be publicly ascertained. Therefore, upon the preliminary adoption of the
Earth Constitution by the equivalent of 25 countries, the World Financial
Administration would begin the installment of payments for double that cost
to the respective municipality or province.
There are numerous variations of this by which the
financing can be properly accounted and repaid.
The income of federal systems far exceeds the incomes of
the constituent jurisdictions, so there is a flow of value from the Earth
Federation to the nations and peoples of the world, which is quite opposite
from the conventional United Nations Charter process of national-level
tributes. This happens because the Earth Federation system is much more
efficient than the old fiscal systems. There is strength in union.
3. Question: How is non-military Earth Federation
possible while it took hitting Japan with two Atom Bombs during World War II
to demilitarize that country? No such magic stick has been
suggested in the Constitution of the Earth Federation which will
demilitarized the various sovereign Countries of the World, especially the
U.S.A, France, China, Russia, Korea, etc.
Response: The Earth Federation is obliged to operate by
constitutional and civil due process, which means that it does not use
weapons of mass destruction to try to rid the world of weapons of mass
destruction, but instead uses court process and civil police. The
provisional Earth Federation has legally prohibited nuclear weapons since
1982, leading to the 1996 ICJ official decision that nuclear weapons are
illegal. We support that decision of the World Court. Since 1996, world
citizens have worked together to build statutory civil enforcement process
for violators of the world law.
In fact, there are world legal guidelines for this
through a large number of world legislative statutes, such as the Rules for
Procedures and Evidence. These rules have been officially recognized by the
majority of the nations of Earth by their respective constituent processes,
as well as by the People of Earth, as represented by the provisional World
Parliament. Since 2003, there have been legislative sentencing parameters
for violations of the world law. The criminals, wherever they are hiding,
will have to appear in Court. If the violators of the laws against weapons
of mass destruction do not willingly come to Court, then warranted police
procedures are affected to bring them to Court. There is no impunity and no
official position immune from World Law. This principle is very clear in the
Agreements and in the Statutes.
For more details on the World Court System, go to
4. Question: The various States of the World are
known on the basis of nationality, race, and religions and the Earth is
known on the basis of human beings. Yet the Constitution of the Earth
Federation illogically provides a AHouse
of Nations@ with a
AHouse of Peoples." Is it
again creating a system of superiority and inferiority of some Nations like
the present super/veto power holders of the U.N. Security Council?
What will be the changed under the Earth Constitution?"
Response: The Earth Constitution recognizes the strength in the
precedent of multi-cameral legislative government that has been historically
set by large constituencies around the world, such as India, USA, Canada,
Japan, etc., just to name a few. In World Parliament, there is no veto
retained and there is no executive dissolution of World Parliament. The end
of the veto and persistency of Parliament are characteristic features of the
Furthermore, the People as represented by the provisional
World Parliament have never recognized the Security Council as a legal
person, so any decision of the Security Council to unanimously consent to
violation of world law or to veto for the violation of world law
incriminates the individual legal record of the individual representatives
that act against the world law from within the Security Council. We did not
give them immunity from prosecution. (That was their own dream and it was
never legally documented in any world court approved by the People.) The
world laws are very clear on this matter, and any provision in the United
Nations Charter that specifies that individuals might commit illegal acts
would be in itself an illegal provision, inadmissible as justification in
5. Question: The Constitution of the
Earth Federation seems undemocratic as it ignores laborers,
cultivators, technical people, entertainment producers, thinkers and
curative type of citizens. It appears illogically to have
recognized / included only lecturers, teachers and students of universities/
Response: For any persons who are living as laborers, cultivators,
technical people, entertainment producers, thinkers or curative type of
citizens, all of them have a voice as they wish, within the direct
democratic processes as well as representative democratic processes of the
Earth Federation. None of them are excluded, and in fact some may have more
skill of one form or another and so may gravitate toward certain roles or
duties without being forced. If someone wishes to garden that person will
probably garden. If someone wishes to do technical work, then probably they
will select technical work. However, under the world law and Earth
Constitution everyone is guaranteed equal protection and application of the
The Constitution provides for students and teachers to
nominate candidates for the House of Counselors from institutions of higher
education worldwide. That is because the purpose of the House of
Counselors is to have a body of people highly educated in world problems
(from all walks of life) who can represent the common good the the whole.
Students and professors world wide are more likely to know who such people
are and can nominate people from any walk of life.
6. Question: No practical Movement on ground
in favor of Earth Federation has been seen in any community of the World
during the last two decades. How its implementation will be possible? The
existence of Constitution on various Webs is tantamount just riding horses
in the air.
Response: You will see Earth Federation itself in action, if you
wish to. Earth Federation is not separate from the people of Earth. It
embodies itself in many ways. For instance, one bench of our World Court
System already has an annual budget of over 50 million Euro, supported
officially by the majority of the world=
s nations. This is factual and practical. See
This has been officially approved by the provisional World Parliament on a
conditional basis (Some conditions being that the People gave power of Order
to the Court, and struck down the provisions for withdrawal, denial of
jurisdiction and Security Council override, which were not legal
parliamentary provisions.) However, for those who do not wish to see it,
they will need to pretend that the Earth Federation is not growing. That=
s tolerable C it=
s their loss, however.
Again, for more details on the World Court System, go to
7. Question: No “ Road Map” has been
provided to implement the Constitution of Earth Federation.
Response: There are many road maps of the Earth Federation.
A primary set of road maps is the Earth Constitution Articles 17, 18 and 19.
Article 17 defines the ratification and implementation process. Article 18
defines the amendment process. Article 19 defines the provisional stage of
Earth Federation, that is, the time between the initial declaration of the
Earth Federation on a standing basis (declared 1987) and the preliminary
adoption by about 25 national governments or its equivalent. (Many of us
expect this soon.)
For the full text of Earth Constitution in 10 major world
languages, go to bottom of page at
There are other maps, as well. For instance, there is the
Elections Act, world legislative act #29, that shows how direct democracy
and representative democracy work together seamlessly within the context of
the Earth Constitution. This act gives guidelines for the electoral process,
yet also devolves decision making from the Parliament (In other words, many
kinds of Earth Federation government decisions take place outside of World
Parliament and between general elections
C not just once every five years. The people have a continuous
There are also legislatively adopted districting maps,
based upon initial districting plans by Ian Hackett & Dr. Hanna Newcombe.
These districting maps are subject to amendment based largely but not
entirely on the constituencies of the respective districts.
There are also many other agencies that exist and are
propelling Earth Federation forward, whether officially conscious of the
process or not. All of the viable agencies of the United Nations system can
be said to be working for Earth Federation, in the sense that each has a
real and valuable function, and this function will continue, grow and more
greatly strengthen within the context of the Earth Federation.
There World Health Organization need not change its name
or activity, for instance. WHO has a vital and expanding role within Earth
Federation. No part of Earth Federation competes against the WHO. On the
contrary, the Earth Federation embraces the World Health Organization, and
schedules to cover the WHO budgeting shortfall that the nations in isolated
capacity cannot pay.
A map is not the territory it represents. However, the
Earth Constitution, as well as the world legislative statutes, provides very
substantial guidelines for moving forward with self-government at a global
level. The map is an aid. We still need to keep our eyes on the road as we
drive. However, if between drives we study the map, then it is much more
likely that we will be better drivers for it.
Resumen de la
Constitución para la Federación de la Tierra
El PARLAMENTO MUNDIAL, integrado por tres cámaras, para adoptar la
Cámara de la gente elegida directamente por la gente de los
1000 distritos electorales y administrativos mundiales, (aproximadamente
iguales en población), para servir términos de cinco años.
Cámara de naciones designada o elegida por gobiernos
Cámara de los consejeros de 200 elegidos por las otras dos
casas, elegidas para la perspectiva global,
Tiene funciones nominativas, consultivas, iniciativas y para la remisión.
EJECUTIVO MUNDIAL elegido cerca y responsable al parlamento. Presidio
de un presidente que rota y de 4 vicepresidentes, todos los miembros del
Parlamento Mundial, nominados por la Cámara de Consejeros. Gabinete
Ejecutivo de 30 ministros, todos Miembros del Parlamento. El Ejecutivo
Mundial no puede poner veto ni suspender ni el Parlamento ni la Constitución
ADMINISTRACIÓN MUNDIAL de cerca de 30 ministerios, cada uno dirigido
por un ministro de gabinete o vicepresidente; La administración total es
coordinada por un secretario general, quien es elegido por el Presidio y
confirmado por el gabinete.
El COMPLEJO INTEGRANTE incluye las agencias para la función pública
mundial, los límites y las elecciones, personal del servicio civil mundial,
instituto en procedimientos y los problemas gubernamentales mundiales,
investigación y planeamiento, gravamen tecnológico y ambiental,
administración financiera mundial, y revisión legislativa.
JUDICATURA MUNDIAL integrada por 8 tribunales que tienen jurisdicción
obligatoria para diversas clases de asuntos, con 5 asientos continentales.
El Parlamento Mundial elige el Colegio de Jueces Mundiales, El Colegio de
Jueces elige un Consejo de presidencia de 5 miembros que asigne a jueces a
los varios tribunales.
El SISTEMA de la APLICACIÓN no militar, es dirigido por una oficina
del General de los Abogados Mundiales y la comisión de 20 Abogados
Regionales Mundiales, elegida cerca y desprendible por el Parlamento. Los
Abogados Mundiales designan a los Policías Mundiales (desprendibles por el
Parlamento) a prender violadores individuales.
El DESARME de las naciones se logra mientras que la Constitución
Terrestre se ratifica. La Federación Terrestre no conserva ni utiliza
las armas de la destrucción total, ni mantiene cualquier fuerza militar.
El DEFENSOR PUBLICO para proteger derechos humanos y asegurar que el
gobierno funciona apropiadamente, es dirigido por un Consejo de 5 Defensores
Públicos Mundiales nominado por la Cámara de Consejeros, y de la Comisión de
20 Abogados Regionales Mundiales, elegidos por el Parlamento completo.
Hay DECLARACIÓN de DERECHOS de 18 secciones, garantizadas con la
ratificación de la Constitución Terrestre.
PRINCIPIOS DIRECCIONALES, de 19 secciones, para proteger a
derechos civiles y económicos para ser puesto en ejecución cuanto antes para
todos los ciudadanos mundiales.
JURISDICCIÓN del GOBIERNO MUNDIAL dado con poderes definidos en 40
Las naciones y gobiernos locales conservan asuntos internos excedentes de
la jurisdicción mundial.
Para las ELECCIONES y la ADMINISTRACIÓN la Tierra se compone en 1000
Distritos, 20 Regiones, 10 Magna-Regiones, y por lo menos 5 Divisiones
Continentales. El proceso incluye características de la democracia directa—referéndum,
iniciativa, plebiscito, etc., y también de democracia representativa.
CINCO CAPITALES MUNDIALES se establecen en 5 divisiones continentales.
Habrá el capital primario, y
los demás son capitales secundarios.
Por etapas se pondrá en práctica la CONSTITUCIÓN TERRESTRE:
Gobierno Provisional Mundial antes de que 25 países hayan ratificado,
incluyendo sesiones de un parlamento Provisional Mundial. Primera etapa
operativa cuando equivalente a 25 países o equivalente a 100 distritos
mundiales han ratificado la Constitución terrestre.
Segunda etapa operativa cuando 50% de países, y 50% del población han
Etapa operativa completa cuando 80% de países, abarcando 90% de la
población de la Tierra, han ratificado.
Las AGENCIAS VIABLES de las Naciones Unidas, transfieren,
reconstituyen e integran en la Federación Terrestre.
La CONVENCIÓN CONSTITUCIONAL PERIÓDICA se requiere ningún menos a
menudo que cada veinte años.
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