Dr. Tod W. Burke Fall, 2015


(Any revisions to the syllabus after the first day of class will be noted via an announcement in class and recorded in the revised syllabus on this homepage document)

CRJU 235 Section 1 CRN: 10989

Tuesday/Thursday 11:00-12:15

Waldron Hall 226

Office: Russell Hall, Room 133 - Dean's Suite Work Phone: 831-5149

Fax: 831-5970 E-mail: tburke@radford.edu Homepage: www.radford.edu/~tburke

Office Hours: Tuesday/Thursday 2:00-3:00 PM

*Appointments available or simply stop by the office to chat

Introduction/Class Description

This 3 credit course is designed to examine the police image as it relates to such topics as social conflict, police recruitment, police brutality, police corruption, and stress, to name a few. Much of the material and classroom discussion will focus upon the role of the "street" officer, beginning with an historical perspective to the future of policing in America. The basic format of the instruction is discussion; however students may be required to participate in role playing activities and scenarios, when called upon.

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

·         explain Robert Peel's philosophy of policing as it relates to modern policing:

·         explain the 3 historical eras of policing;

·         describe the police recruitment and hiring process;

·         apply the problem-solving strategy known as SARA;

·         describe the 3 styles of policing as noted by James Q. Wilson;

·         describe the police officer's "working personality;"

·         explain the various types of police corruption and the various methods to minimize corruption within a police agency;

·         explain the "Dirty Harry" problem and how it relates to morality and ethical decision- making;

·         explain the philosophy and implementation of Community-Oriented Policing; and

·         identify and discuss the Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, particularly those relating to police procedures.


Expectations and Professionalism

I expect you to approach the class with a high level of professionalism. Pause for a moment to ask yourself, "why am I in this class?" There may be many good answers to that question.Perhaps you’re interested in becoming a police officer or simply want to know more about policing.  Hopefully, the answer is not just that you like the time slot when the class is offered, or that "I had to take it," or that "nothing else was open and I needed a class."

You may be wondering why we are asking you to consider this. The answer is that it relates directly to professionalism. There are two assumptions that I hold of every student in this course: The first is that you want to be here; and the second is that you are committed to doing the best work possible. If both of these assumptions are true, then your likelihood of success increases.But in order for these assumptions to be true, you must find a motivation (beyond grades) for studying in this course.

This is good preparation for the workforce. Your employers will expect these same two things. Establishing and maintaining professionalism now will serve you well for the future, so I expect that you will approach this class in much the same way that you would approach professional employment. Let’s consider what that means.

Participation counts. Would you expect to be lectured by your boss for the duration of a shift? Hopefully not. Likewise, you should not expect to be the passive recipients of a lecture by me for the entirety of a class meeting. This is a class where you will learn much through class discussion, completion of assignments and role playing exercises, and your own critical thinking. Just as tasks assigned by an employer build toward meeting an organization’s goals, I likewise do not assign any tasks for the purpose of "busy work" – there is a purpose for all of them, which builds toward meeting the learning goals/objectives for the course (if you are unclear of the purpose, I will happy gladly explain my reasoning).

Attitude counts. While the products you submit are most important (e.g., papers, presentations, contributions to discussion, etc.), a good attitude goes a long way. This is signaled by demeanor, attentiveness, timeliness, preparation, and having a positive willingness to learn.

Again, consider this from an employer’s perspective. Would you retain an employee who did not pay attention, who slept or was working on other activities during meetings, who was late or absent without good reason, who had not completed the background preparations necessary for the job, and who was unwilling to accept constructive criticism or instruction? Almost certainly not. The same applies here.

Collegiality counts. Collegiality refers to the idea that we must all treat each other with respect in order to complete projects and to work well together. In the workplace, this means that discussions should be civil, without name-calling or rude comments, even when there are disagreements. Indeed, it is normal to have some differences of opinion, and civil debates and discussions can be productive in both clarifying ideas and developing new understandings about an issue of interest. This also means that, when working with others on a project team (which is unavoidable in most professions, especially criminal justice), all persons should demonstrate a commitment to the project, to meeting their obligations, and to contributing fully to it. Again, the same expectations apply in the classroom.


Quality of work counts. Consider the criminal justice workplace. Written reports that are sloppy, inaccurate, or hastily prepared may obscure important facts and result in misunderstandings or errors that have the potential to affect property, finances, policies, and lives. The same is true for public speaking that is inaudible (or too loud), rambling, or unclear. The same is true for drawing conclusions not grounded in careful analysis of research and facts. The same is true of not ensuring that all directions or instructions relevant to a task are followed. You can see the theme of this section…quality of work matters. This goes far beyond completing and turning in an assignment; make each assignment the best it can be.

It is my goal for all students to find success in this course. The above principles provide a means for doing so. I look forward to a collaborative and rewarding semester!


There will be no exams, nor a formal research paper (You should be elated; I know I am!).

Grades will be based on the assignments listed below.  Grades will be recorded in the “gradebook” feature of D2L.  It is your responsibility to keep track of your progress in the class.

Quizzes                    (20 points max. per quiz)

Book Club               (100 maximum points - maximum 25 points per paper assignment) Attendance             (See below)
Completion of APA and  Academic Integrity Modules (see below)

Depending upon the total point value (to be determined depending upon the number of quizzes), grades will be calculated as follows:

90-100% = A

86-89% =    B+

80-85% =    B

76-79% =    C+

70-75% =    C

60-69% =    D

0-59% =      F

For example, if a student were to earn 250 points out of a possible 290, the final grade would be: B+ (250/290 = 86.2%).

No Late Papers/Assignments Will be Accepted - No Excuses!

Each quiz will be valued up to 20 points and will be hypothetical/essay/short answers and may cover any material covered in lecture, classroom discussion, guest speakers, news items, videos, etc. All quizzes will be administered at the beginning of the class period (and will most likely take between 10-15 minutes to complete). Following each quiz, classroom discussion willfollow as per the lesson plan (no need to rush out the door).  Note: If a student leaves class prior to the completion of his or her quiz, the quiz will be collected and considered complete at that point.  Students will not be allowed to make-up a missed quiz unless arrangements have been made between the professor and student prior to the quiz. Students arriving late to class will likely miss all or part of the quiz.

Comment on quizzes:  As you can see, quiz dates are not posted. This is because I expect you to have some ownership on the pace of the course.  I do not wish to rush through material simply to meet a quiz date. That being said, you will be notified at least one week prior to the upcoming quiz via e-mail and during in-class discussion.  I will also notify you of the material that you will be held accountable for that quiz.  Please do NOT wait until the last minute to study. All quizzes will require critical thinking and application.

Book Club Assignment

No textbook is required for this course (Oh Boy!).  In lieu of a textbook, you will read and review a non-fiction book concerning issues in policing (see books below).  Your book will be randomly assigned (through a grab-bag) in the first class session following the schedule adjustment period (drop-add).  Therefore, do NOT purchase any book until your book has been assigned (see below).  Copies of your book will be available at the Radford University Bookstore; however, you may also obtain your book from your local or online bookseller.

After your book has been selected, you will meet with other classmates who have also selected the same book to form a Book Club. This is a group project. Over the course of the semester, you will be working collaboratively with your classmates to analyze and review your book.Therefore, you need to set up an initial group meeting to review the requirements of this assignment and to determine your group’s meeting times and due dates.

At this initial group meeting, you should plan the rest of your meeting times for the semester. You will need to meet at least three times between Tuesday, September 8th and Wednesday, November 4th, to engage in discussion of your book (you will need to meet again to discuss your final paper and oral presentation).  At each meeting, you will be discussing one-third of your book.  The 3rd paper MUST be due on or before Thursday, November 5th. Divide your book into approximate thirds to determine which chapters (or pages) you will discuss at each meeting.  In scheduling your meetings, be sure to consider group members’ workloads and schedules, as well as the amount of time you think it will take to read each section of the book. Meetings should be during reasonable hours and scheduled for a public meeting place (e.g., library, Young Hall, the Bonnie, campus meeting rooms, etc.).  Be advised, I (or my designee) reserve the right to attend your meetings, on an unannounced basis.

You will also need to meet as a group to discuss your group paper and to rehearse your group presentation. These meetings should be held after the three meetings noted above.

You must submit the meeting times and locations (as well as the due dates for your meeting materials - see 2-d below) to my graduate student and me for our records via e-mail (one e-mail per group should suffice; so designate one group member to do so).


The process for the project is as follows:

1.      You should plan to have obtained a copy of the book, and to have started reading it, no later than Tuesday, September 8th.


2.      Your group will at least meet three times to discuss the book. Here is the process that you should follow for each of the three group meetings:

a.        No later than 48 hours prior to each meeting, prepare a journal entry. The entry should consist of two parts, each of which is thoughtful, well-written, and approximately one page (typed, double spaced, not including headings) in length.

i.  First, you should provide a broad summary of the chapters/pages that you read. You need not document every detail of the chapters, but should strive for a concise but complete overview of the main storylines. You should include any specific stories or examples that you thought were particularly interesting, important or relevant (and be sure to explain why you thought they were so).

ii.   Second, you should provide a reflection on the assigned chapters/pages.  Your reaction in this section should go beyond “I liked it” or “I didn’t like it,” and beyond “it was interesting” or “it was not interesting.”  Instead, you should provide a thoughtful analysis that addresses issues such as, but not limited to, those listed below:

·         How does the book illustrate (or not illustrate) material from class, including lectures, discussions, current events, videos, etc.?


·         What does the book illustrate that the policing process does well, and why?  What does the book illustrate that the policing process does not do well, and why?


·         Is there any situation that you would have handled differently in that section of the book?  Why and how?


·         Does this section of the book raise any policing questions (policy/ethical/ factual/procedural/etc.) and, if so, what are they and why?


·         What is your opinion (beyond like/dislike/interesting/uninteresting/ important/unimportant) of the issues presented in this section of the book, and/or how they are conveyed?

In other words, the purpose of the second section is for you to critically analyze the section of the book that you have read, and to write about the opinions that you have developed as a result. Consider the book as a case-study in policing and how you would assess it.


b.      No later than 48 hours prior to each meeting, circulate one discussion question to your fellow group members.  As the name suggests, discussion questions should stimulate discussion.  If someone could turn to a page in the book and retrieve a factual answer to the question, then that’s not a discussion question. A good discussion question should be interesting, should not necessarily have an immediately apparent clear-cut answer, and should provide room for intelligent conversation that extends or enriches the text.

c.        Hold your group meeting. Meetings should be from an hour to an hour-and-a-half in length.  You should focus your discussion along two dimensions:

i.   First, you should address the discussion questions posed by group members.  In your discussion, work to thoroughly engage with the material, moving beyond cursory responses.  You may find that you spend greater amounts of time discussing some questions, and that you do not have time to address all

questions in their entirety. That is fine. The goal is for you to have an in-depth discussion of issues raised by the book.  These conversations are important, because they can help to shape your responses to the discussions that

follow and to your planning for the final group recommendation paper.

ii.     Second, for each group meeting I will pose a question/issue that I would like for the group to consider.  They are listed below, by meeting. The group should prepare a response to the question, in approximately one (typed, double- spaced) page.  There is no right or wrong answer, but whatever answer the group prepares should be thoroughly explained and justified, reflecting a strong group discussion to frame the answer.

First Meeting:  Having now read the first third of the book, what do you think are the three most interesting stories, problems, issues, etc. that have been

presented thus far?  Explain your answer and why the stories, problems, issues, etc., that you selected are important.

Second Meeting:  Identify a situation in the book that you think should have been handled differently. Summarize the situation, explain why you think it should have been handled differently, and explain and justify what you would have

done instead.

Third Meeting:  Identify what you think is the best policy, program, practice, etc., illustrated in this book, and why you think it is the best.  Identify

what you think is the worst policy, program, practice, etc., illustrated in this book, and why you think it is the worst.

d.      The group must submit a copy of items a-c, above, to me during the beginning of the next class period following your meeting (e.g. if your meeting was held on Thursday, your material will be due at the beginning of Tuesday's class). More specifically, you should submit to me a hard copy containing all group members’ journals, all discussion questions, and the group’s response to the assigned question. The authorship of each piece should be clearly labeled.  I will not accept materials delivered piecemeal. All material should be stapled and placed into an envelope/folder (you can re-use the envelope/folder for each assignment, once returned). You may wish, at the beginning of the semester, to designate who will be responsible for this task at each meeting. See Coversheet Checklist in D2L attachment).

e.  Each individual member of the group must submit a group meeting evaluation form on or before the due date of your group material (see 2-d above). In any case, the evaluations must be submitted PRIOR to the beginning of class. Rather than waiting until the end of the semester to provide feedback about the group experience, we will do so after each of the three meetings.  The form is available as an attachment in D2L. This must be e-mailed to me (or my graduate student). Do NOT simply place your evaluation into the packet of material above.  I want you to feel free to fairly evaluate your group members without fear other members will review your comments.   I will ask you to be realistic in your assessment of everyone’s contributions, including your own. If I feel that you drastically over-rated or under-rated an individual, I may use my discretion to adjust the evaluation. Failure to submit a completed evaluation form will result in a deduction of 5 points.  As the group evaluation indicates, specify what point (not percentage) deduction, if any, you are providing a member out of 15 points (not 25 points). Additionally, when you submit your group evaluation form electronically, please place your name on the file document (e.g., JohnSmithGroupEvaluation1.doc).  This will allow us to maintain the file document without renaming.

f.      After you have turned your materials in, I (or my graduate assistant) will issue grades.  More specifically, here is how you will be graded:

i.  Your journal entry and discussion question will be worth up to 10 points and will be graded individually. If you do not submit materials, you will

not receive credit.  Late work will NOT be accepted.  No excuses.

ii.     Your group question response will be worth up to 15 points and will be graded as a group.  If you are absent from the group meeting, you will not receive credit. All group members who were present will receive the same grade, unless the group evaluations recommend a deduction for a group member.

3.      After you have completed the book, you should hold any additional meetings that are needed to accomplish the following.  Think back on the book, as a whole.  If you had to identify one specific, substantive recommendation of something that would improve the policing process based on your reading of the book – what would it be?  You should prepare and submit a group paper that contains the following, no later than the beginning of class on Thursday, November 19th:

a.  Your recommendation stated in one sentence.

b.  An explanation of your recommendation – what it means, how it would be implemented, why it is a good idea, how it is related to the book, how it relates to class material, etc.

c.    A justification showing support for your recommendation by references to at least three scholarly journal articles (if you have a question about what constitutes a scholarly journal, please let me know).


d.  A properly formatted reference page (and in-text citations) for the material from the scholarly journals and your book.

e.  All written work should follow the latest APA format!  I strongly suggest that you use the link below from the Radford University Library to guide you through the latest APA writing standards: http://libguides.radford.edu/apastyle.

f.  You should provide two full copies of your final paper (one will be returned with a grade; the other will be kept on file). Please make sure that each paper is stapled (no paper clips or similar devices).

g.  Provide highlighted copies of your sources (only those that you actually used in your paper) and attach those to the final paper. You do not need to make two copies of your sources! Here is how to do a highlighted copy:

i.   If you use the actual source in your paper, print a copy of the document.  You do not need to print the entire document, but only the page(s) that contain the cited material.  For example, in a 20 page journal article, if you only wish to cite some material found on page 6, you should only print (or photocopy) page 6.

ii.   Highlight (with a marker, pen, etc.) the line(s) that were paraphrased or quoted; stay away from direct quotes, if possible (e.g., on page 6, if you only used material from lines 1-3 in the second paragraph, highlight those lines).

iii.   Include the highlighted sources with your paper, as noted above.

h.  Please consider your recommendations carefully; you’ll want to spend a substantial amount of time discussing and developing it.  I will place some limitation on your recommendations:  While your recommendations can (and perhaps should) be as creative as you’d like, they may not go against scientific evidence about what is effective, nor may they violate any laws (or the 4th Amendment).

4.      On Thursday, December 17 (Exam Day) I will call upon each group to make a 5-7 minute presentation about your book.  It should include a brief overview of what you found most interesting in the book, what lessons you think the book holds for policing, how the book related (or did not relate) to course material, your group recommendation (see above), and whether you enjoyed the book and would recommend this book for future classes (your honest assessment will not reflect negatively upon your grade.).  You should plan your presentation carefully to fit the time limits, and to highlight what are really the most important points that you want to make. Don’t feel that you need to cover everything – just the most important aspects. Be creative in structuring your presentation.  Both the final recommendation paper and the oral presentation will be worth up to 25 points, combined.

5.      No later than Thursday, December 17th you must complete an evaluation of your group members (see group evaluation attachment in D2L) in terms of their performance on the group paper and group presentation portions of the assignment. All group members will receive the same grade on the paper and presentation, unless the evaluations recommend deductions based on the performance criteria.   I will ask you to be realistic in your assessment of everyone’s contributions.  If I feel that you drastically over-rated or under-rated an individual, I may use my discretion to adjust the evaluation. Failure to submit a completed evaluation will result in a deduction of 5 points. This evaluation will be turned into me in hard copy the day of the group oral presentation.  In other words, please do NOT submit this evaluation electronically as you did the previous evaluations. You can manually adjust a group member's evaluation immediately following the oral presentation, if necessary. Please keep in mind that the most you may deduct from any group member, including yourself, is 25 points (with a written justification for any deductions).

This is a semester-long group project, and you should plan to dedicate sufficient time to thoroughly analyze your book using the framework described in this handout.  I hope that you find the reading to be interesting and the discussions engaging; use this as an opportunity to explore the world of policing beyond a typical textbook!


Book Titles: Do NOT panic.  You will only be reading one of these books! Book Title:  Cop: A True Story

Author:  Michael Middleton Year: 2000 (Revised Edition) ISBN:  0-8092-2540-9

Publisher:  Contemporary Books (Chicago)

Book Title:  Breaking Rank Author:  Norm Stamper Year:  2005

ISBN: 1-56025-693-1

Publisher: Nation Books

Book Title: Cop in the Hood

Author: Peter Moskos Year: 2008

ISBN: 978-0-691143866

Publisher: Princeton University Press

Book Title: Turnaround Author:  William Bratton Year: 1998

ISBN: 0-679-45251-6

Publisher: Random House


Book:  Armed and Dangerous

Author:  Gina Gallo Year:  2001

ISBN: 0-312-87890-7

Publisher: Tor/Forge


Book Title:  Beat Cop to Top Cop: A Tale of Three Cities

Author: John F. Timoney

Year:  2010

ISBN: 978-0-8122-4246-1

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press


The student is expected to attend each class. If an individual is borderline between grades, class participation will be considered in making the final grade decision. Additionally, students are expected to attend class "on time." Tardiness will NOT be tolerated (the student may be denied admission into the class if tardy and will be counted absent). If the student is late on quiz day, he/she will likely forfeit the quiz for that day (unless the student can still complete the quiz within the allotted time period - no extensions will be granted).

*Bonus: 10 points (not 10%) will be added to the final scores from tests/labs for perfect attendance (An "excused" absence will result in the forfeit of the bonus points, but will not be counted against the student. An "excused" absence must be cleared by the professor. The student  must e-mail the professor prior to, or the day of, the absence to receive an "excused absence." This notification does not automatically grant the approval. Any student who misses more than one (1) class will be deducted 30 points for each "unexcused" class missed (Two tardies = one absence).  Any student missing 4 classes or more, whether excused or not, will receive an "F" in the course. Any student not paying attention such as, falling asleep in class (if that is even possible in this course), working on another assignment, failing to pay attention during news briefings, videos, etc., playing with their cell phone, being ill-prepared for classroom discussion, leaving class early without prior permission of the instructor, etc., may be counted absent for that day.

APA and Academic Integrity Modules

As part of this course, you are required to complete two modules from McConnell Library in Desire2Learn (D2L):  “APA for Undergraduates” and “Avoiding Plagiarism.”  The “Avoiding Plagiarism” module has one 10-point quiz.  The “APA for Undergraduates” module has four quizzes – one for each section – including a 12-point quiz on “Introduction to APA Style,” a 12-point quiz on “Scholarly Journal Articles,” a 10-point quiz on “In-Text Citations,” and a 12-point quiz on “Websites.” The instructions for both completing the modules and successfully completed modules (completed from a previous course) are outlined in detail in D2L.  All students must submit proof of successful completion of all of the modules no later than Friday, October 2nd (See D2L instructions).  Failure to successfully complete all modules by the due date will result in a 20-point deduction from your final grade point total.  There will be no exceptions or excuses.  You would be wise to complete the modules early so you have a better understanding of proper use of APA citations, as well as issues relating to academic integrity; specifically plagiarism). [See section of Academic Dishonesty below]. If you have already completed the modules for another course, you may wish, although you are not required, to refresh your memory by retaking the modules and quizzes.

Two-minute Review

At the end of each class session, the student will have approximately 2 minutes to record the central issue(s) discussed during that class period.  The student should include any points that were of interest and any points that remain unclear, if any.  This should provide the student an opportunity to ask for clarification during the next class session, as well as to inform the professor on any points that were unclear and need to be revisited.

Other important information:

Electronics:  If you bring a cell phone to class, please turn off the ringer (you may wish to put the phone on vibrate).  If you receive a call during class, do NOT respond to the message unless it is an emergency that the entire class should be made aware of (example - a campus emergency).  Laptops and other computer/recording devices are NOT allowed to be in use during class. This will minimize unnecessary distractions that often accompany the use of these electronic devices (sorry - you will have to take notes the old fashion way -via handwriting).

Academic Dishonesty:  Radford University is committed to the highest standards of academic honesty. Acts of academic dishonesty include plagiarism, cheating, bribery, academic fraud, sabotage of research materials, the sale of academic papers, the purchase of academic papers, and the falsification of records. An individual who engages in these or Related activities or who knowingly aids another who engages them, is acting in an academically dishonest manner and will be subject to disciplinary action in accordance with the bylaws and procedures of Radford University (See Student Standards and Conduct Guidelines).

Each member of the academic community is expected to give full, fair, and formal credit to any and all sources that have contributed to the formulation of ideas, methods, interpretations, and findings. The absence of such formal credit is an affirmation that the work is fully the writer’s. The term "sources" includes, but is not limited to, published or unpublished materials, lectures, lecture notes, computer programs, mathematical and other symbolic formulations, course papers, examinations, theses, dissertations, and comments offered in class or informal discussions. The representation that such work of another is the writer’s represents plagiarism.

Care must be taken to document the source of any ideas or arguments. If the actual word of a source is used, it must appear within quotation marks. In cases that are unclear, the writer must take due care to avoid plagiarism.

The source should be cited whenever:

1.       A text is quoted verbatim

2.       Data gathered by another are presented in diagrams or tables/charts

3.       The results of a study conducted by another are used

4.       The work or intellectual effort of another is paraphrased by the writer.

Since the intent to deceive is not a necessary element (strict liability), careful note taking and record keeping is essential in order to avoid plagiarism. In other words, it is like being a little bit pregnant (you either are or you are not). One cannot have "accidental/unintentional" plagiarism!

Students should consult members of the faculty for clarification of the definition and substance of this policy on plagiarism as it applies to their particular discipline.

(Source: City University of New York – Proposal on Plagiarism).

Student Accommodations

Students seeking accommodations are required to provide documentation from an appropriate health care provider or professional. The documentation must outline the functional limitations that substantially limit a major life activity. Providers are also asked to provide recommendations for reasonable accommodations based upon the disability. However, Radford University's disability services professionals ultimately decide on what accommodations are appropriate and reasonable.

Having a diagnosis is not the same as having a disability!

ADA Statement

If you are seeking academic accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act at Radford University, you are required to register with the Disability Resource Office (DRO). To receive academic accommodations for this class, please submit your documentation to the DRO in the lower level of Tyler Hall Suites 54-69, by fax to 540-831-6525, by email to  dro@radford.edu.   After submitting documentation to the DRO, you will set up an interview with a Disability Services Specialist to discuss accommodations. You will be notified via email once your accommodation package is complete and ready to be picked up. Once you have picked up your accommodation package, you will need to meet with me during office hours (or a day and time that is convenient for both of us) to review and discuss your package. For more information and/or for documentation guidelines, visit www.radford.edu/dro or call 540-831-6350.

The Learning Resource Center

The Learning Assistance and Resource Center (LARC), located in 125 Walker Hall, is open to all students Monday through Friday from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. Certified, trained tutors provide help with basic study skills, writing, and content-specific material.  An appointment is necessary and can be made by calling 831-7704, emailing larc@radford.edu, or IMing “rularcappt."

Campus Emergency Information

To promote emergency preparedness: Sign up for the RU Alert notificationsystem; know safe evacuation routes from your classrooms; listen for and follow instructions from RU or other designated authorities; be familiar with emergency policies and procedures; and know the phone number for the RU PoliceDepartment (540-831-5500). Additional information is available from the RU Office of Emergency Preparedness (http://oep.asp.radford.edu).  In the event of a University-wide emergency, course requirements, classes, deadlines and grading schemes are subject to changes that may include alternative delivery methods, class materials, due dates, assignments, and/or course policies.(for additional information, see:  http://oep.asp.radford.edu/default.htm.