Hilary M. Lips'
        Chapter Contents for
    A New Psychology of Women
                         Gender, Culture, and Ethnicity
                                                             Third Edition
click on  Waveland Press  in regarding to availability and orders

  Chapter 1  Chapter 2  Chapter 3  Chapter 4  Chapter 5  Chapter 6  Chapter 7  Chapter 8  
Chapter 9  Chapter 10  Chapter 11  Chapter 12  Chapter 13  Chapter 14  
      

CHAPTER 1
Why a Global, Multicultural Psychology of Women

1
Femininity and Masculinity Are Socially Constructed 4  
  How Many Genders Are There? 7  
If Gender Is the Issue, Why Focus on Women? 11  
  Should a Psychology of Women Be “Feminist”? 13  
Why a Multicultural, Global Approach? 16  
Stereotyping and Discrimination: Universal Barriers for Women? 18  
  How Universal Are Gender Stereotypes? 19
Where Are Gender Stereotypes Most Traditional? 22
Components of Gender Stereotypes 22
The Impact of Stereotypes 23
Prejudice: Negative Evaluation of Women and Their Work 24
Sexism’s Links with Other Forms of Prejudice 25
Discrimination: Keeping Women Down and Out 30
 
Summary 33
Key Terms 35
Discussion Questions 35
For Additional Reading 35
Web Resources 36
 
       
CHAPTER 2
Female-Male Comparisons: The Meaning and Significance of Difference

37
A Brief History of the Research 39
Approaches to Knowledge: Issues of Method, Evidence, and Truth 41

 
 

Feminist Issues and Influences in Psychological Research 41
Doing Science: Logical Positivism, Essentialism, and Social Constructionism 45
What Is Good Scientific Evidence? 48

 
    Framing the Research Question 48
Research Design: Samples and Methods
48
Group Comparisons 50
Interpreting the Results: What Is a Difference?
52
Interpreting the Results: Why Is There a Difference?
53
 
  Alternative Approaches to Knowledge 54  
Gender Differences and Similarities in Cognitive Abilities or Styles 55  
  Research on Cognitive Differences 57  
    Verbal Performance 58
Quantitative Performance
59
Visual—Spatial Performance
63
 
  Explanations for Gender Differences in Cognitive Performance 65  
Gender Differences and Similarities in Aggression 69
Explaining Differences and Similarities: Can Biology and Environment
Be Separated? 71
The Meaning of Difference 73
The Question of Differences: The Wrong Question? 74
Summary 75
Key Terms 76
Discussion Questions 76
For Additional Reading 77
Web Resource 77
 
       
CHAPTER 3
Growing Up Female: The Female Body and Its Meanings

78
Sexual Differentiation: How Bodies Become Female or Male 80  
  Step 1: The Chromosomes 82
Step 2: The Gonads 82
Step 3: Hormones 83
Step 4: The Internal Reproductive Tract 83
Step 5: The External Genitalia 84
The Language of Sexual Differentiation 84
 
Does the Brain Differentiate by Sex? 85
The Next Step: Rearing 87
 
  Intersexuality and Behavioral Gender Differences 89  
The Female Body 92  
  Menstruation 93
 
    PMS, Lunar Cycles, and “Menstrual Joy” 96
Menstrual Synchrony
100
 
  Pregnancy and Childbirth 102  
Controlling the Female Body 105  
  Female Genital Mutilation 105
Virginity Testing 108
The Controversy over Abortion 108
 
Confining the Female Body: Seclusion and Veiling 110
Displaying the Female Body 111
 
 
  Body Shape and Weight 112
Face, Skin, and Hair 116
 
Summary 118
Key Terms 119
Discussion Questions 120
For Additional Reading 120
Web Resources 121
 
       
CHAPTER 4
Growing Up Female II: Expectations, Images, and Identities

122
Theories of How Gender Shapes Who We Are 124  
  Psychoanalytic/Identification Theories 125  
    Sigmund Freud 125
Karen Homey
126
Nancy Chodorow
127
Ellyn Kaschak
130
Psychoanalysis and Cultural Differences
131
 
  Evolutionary Theories 132
Social Learning Theories 135
Cognitive Developmental Theories 138
Beyond Childhood: Social Roles 139
 
Models and Media Messages around the World 140
What Does It Mean to Be “Feminine”? 145
 
  Psychological Androgyny 146
Gender Schema Theory 147
Gender-Based Identity and Other Identities: Shaping the Pool of Possible Selves 149
 
  Identity Flexibility and Change 154
The Self as a Cultural Construction 156
 
Summary 157
Key Terms 159
Discussion Questions 159
For Additional Reading 159
Web Resources 160
 
       
CHAPTER 5
Getting The Message:
Self-Confidence, Assertiveness, and Entitlement

161
Self-Confidence, Courage, and Femininity 163  
  Girls’ Self-Confidence 164
A Loss of Self-Esteem at Adolescence? 170
Race/Ethnicity and the Gender Gap in Self-Esteem 173
Confidence, Education, and Life Choices 179
Culture and the Construction of Entitlement 183
 
Girls and Women Using Power 185  
  Entitlement and the Use of Power 185
Reactions to Female Power 187
 
Summary 190
Key Terms 191
Discussion Questions 191
For Additional Reading 191
Web Resources 192
 
       
CHAPTER 6
Connections: Communicating with and Relating to Others

193
Communication 196  
  Verbal Communication 196  
    Conversational Dominance 196
Listening and Conversational Maintenance
197
“Troubles Talk”
198
Speech Styles
199
Language Topics: What Do We Talk About?
200
Language as a Way of Making Masculinity the Norm
202
Language as a Way to Stereotype, Categorize, and Belittle Women
203
Language as a Way of Resistance for Women
203
Computer-Mediated Communication
205
 
  Nonverbal Communication 206  
    Gaze 206
Touch
206
Posture
207
Facial Expression
208
Personal Space
208
 
  Why Should Gender Be Related to Communication Patterns? 208  
Friendship 210  
  Friendships between Women 210  
    Diversity in Women‘s Friendships 212
Some Paradoxes of Women’s Friendships
214
Women’s Friendships across Boundaries of Race or Culture
215
 
  Women’s Friendships with Men 218
How Friendship Patterns Reflect Social Context 219
 
Summary 220
Key Terms 221
Discussion Questions 221
For Additional Reading 222
Web Resources 222
 
       
CHAPTER 7
Family and Intimate Relationships

223
The Context of Intimate Relationships: Family Structure 225
The Couple Bond 226
 
  Love 226
Power, Influence, and Equality in Couple Relationships 229
 
    Equity and the Principle of Least Interest 232
Resources
233
 
  Must Everyone Be Part of a Couple? 237
Marriage: Legalizing the Couple Bond 238
 
    Gay Marriage? 239  
Families and Parenthood 243  
  Mothers and Children 244  
    Lesbian Mothers 248
Single Mothers
249
 
  Mother—Daughter Relationships 251
Fathers and Children 252
Women Who Do Not Have Children 255
 
Summary 256
Key Terms 257
Discussion Questions 257
For Additional Reading 257
Web Resources 258
 
       
CHAPTER 8
Women’s Work

259
Job, Family, and Household Tasks: All of It Is Work for Women 261  
  Women’s Paid Work 263
Women’s Unpaid Work 266
 
Equity and Discrimination 267  
  Discrimination in Hiring, Evaluating, and Paying Workers 268  
    Undervaluing the Work Done by Women 268
Making Assumptions about Women’s Values
269
Motherhood as a Source of Discrimination
271
“Women Should Be at Home” 273
Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation
274
Women’s Working Conditions
275
 
  In Search of Gender Equity in the Workplace: Some Remedies 2  
    Reducing Gender Stereotypes 277
Pay Equity and Affirmative Action
281
 
  Perceptions of Fairness and Reactions to Affirmative Action 284  
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace 287
A Family-Friendly Workplace? Striving for Work—Family Balance 290

 
  Childcare: A Thorny Issue 291
“Best Practices” by U.S. Companies in Aid of a Comfortable
Work—Family Balance 293
 
Having It All? Stress and the Double Day 293  
  Staying Busy, Staying Healthy? 294  
The Future of Women’s Work 295
Summary 297

Key Terms 299
Discussion Questions 299
For Additional Reading 299
Web Resources 300
 
       
CHAPTER 9
Physical Health, Illness, and Healing

301
Women’s Strength and Fitness 303
Women and Physical Illness around the World 307
 
  Life Expectancy 307
Some Major Health Problems for Women 308
 
    Anemia 309
Autoimmune Diseases
309
Tropical Diseases
310
Tuberculosis
310
Reproductive Health
310
Sexually Transmitted Infections
311
Heart Disease
313
Cancer
314
Osteoporosis
316
Alzheimer’s Disease
317
 
Factors Related to Women’s Health 317  
  Health- and Illness-Related Behaviors 317  
    Diet 318
Exercise
318
Smoking
318
Seeking Help and Advice
320
 
  Poverty and Nutrition 320
Stress and Social Support 321
 
    Caregiver Burden 323  
Women as Patients in Health Care Systems 325
Women as Healers 327
Summary 332

Key Terms 333
Discussion Questions 333
For Additional Reading 333
Web Resources 334
 
       
CHAPTER 10
Mental Health, Illness, and Therapy

335 
Gender and Mental Health 337  
  A Double Standard of Mental Health? 338  
Women and Mental Illness around the World 338  
  Depression 340  
    The Feminine-Role Hypothesis 343
The Relationship Difficulties Hypothesis
344
The Stress Hypothesis
346
The Hormone Hypothesis
347
The Developmental Hypothesis
347
Suicide
348
 
  Eating Disorders 349
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia 352
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 354
Alcohol and Drug Abuse 355
 
Diagnosis and Treatment 358  
  The Politics of Diagnosis 359
Psychotherapy 361
 
    Feminist Therapies 364
Diversity Issues in Psychotherapy
365
 
  Drug Therapy 369  
The Social Construction of Women’s Mental Disorders 371
Summary 372

Key Terms 373
Discussion Questions 374
For Additional Reading 374
Web Resources 375
 
       
CHAPTER 11
Myths and Scripts for Women Growing Older
376
The Social Construction of Women’s Aging 378  
  Images of Decline: Media Messages about Women’s Aging 379
Missing Images: Invisible Older Women 381
Images of Power: Stronger, Older Women 381
 
Encountering Menopause: The Cultural Shaping of a Physiological Event 386  
  The Physical Change 386
The Experience of Menopause across Cultures 386
A Brief History of Medicine’s Approach to Menopause 388
The Debate over Hormone Replacement Therapy 390
Menopause and the Politics of Aging across Cultures 392
 
New Roles and Relationships 393  
  The Empty Nest: Loss or Liberation? 393
Career Change and Retirement 394
Losing a Life Partner 395
 
Rejecting the Message of Decline 398
Summary 399

Key Terms 400
Discussion Questions 400
For Additional Reading 400
Web Resources 401
 
       
CHAPTER 12
Sexualities

402 
Research on Sexuality: Where Do Our “Facts” Come From? 404
Sexual Desire and Sexual Response 409
 
  The Medical Model of Sexuality and the Veneration of the Orgasn 413  
Sexual Orientation 415  
  Defining Sexual Orientation 415
Is Women’s Sexual Orientation Inborn? Discovered? Constructed
All of the Above? 418
 
The Social Context of Sexual Behavior 419  
  Culture and Sexual Scripts 419  
    The Double Standard 421  
  Issues in Lesbian Sexualities 424  
    Pleasure 424
Danger
425
 
  Sexualities and Disabilities 426  
Managing the Consequences of Sex 427  
  Contraception 428
“Safe Sex” and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 433
 
Motivations for Sex: Issues of Desire, Love, Power, and Money 4
Summary 439
Key Terms 441

Discussion Questions 442
For Additional Reading 442
Web Resources 443
 
       
CHAPTER 13
Violence against Women: A Worldwide Problem

444 
Battering in Close Relationships 447  
  Dating Violence 447  
  Husbands Abusing Wives 449  
    Psychological and Emotional Abuse 453
Wife Murder for Money or “Honor” 453
 
  Violence in Lesbian Couples 456
Explaining Partner Abuse 457
 
Sex-Selective Abortion, Infanticide, and Systematic Neglect of Girls 459
Sexual Violence 460
 
  Rape 460  
    The Scope of Rape 461
Attitudes toward Rape and Rape Victims
464
The Impact of Rape
464
 
  Sexual Abuse of Children 468
Forced Prostitution and Sex Slavery 468
 
Sexual Harassment and Intimidation 472  
    Pornography and Sexual Violence 474
Intimidation through the Media: Stalkers and Serial Killers on Parade
475
 
Torture and Ill-Treatment of Women in Custody 476
Protecting Women from Violence: Some Strategies 477
Freedom from Persecution on the Basis of Gender: A Human Right 479
Summary 480

Key Terms 482
Discussion Questions 482
For Additional Reading 482
Web Resources 483
 
       
CHAPTER 14
Leadership, Power, and Social Change

484 
Images and Stereotypes of Powerful Women 487  
  Power and Femininity Don’t Mix 487
Invisibility 491
 
Motivation, Skills, and Styles in the Use of Power 494  
  Do Women Want to Lead? 494
Claiming Leadership: Women and Men in Groups 495
Styles of Power and Influence 497
 
    The Bases of Power 497  
“It’s Not in Her Head”: Barriers to Power for Women 500  
  Two Glass Ceilings 500
A Hostile Environment 501
The Difficult Process of Change 504
 
Women in Power 506  
  Women as Political Leaders 506
Women, Resistance, and Collective Action: Wielding and Building Power from Below 510
 
    Individual Resistance 511
Collective Action
511
A New Frontier: Radical Young Feminists
513
 
Women Claiming Power 516
Summary 518

Key Terms 519
Discussion Questions 519
For Additional Reading 519
Web Resources 520
 
Glossary G1
References R1
Credits C1
Author Index I1
Subject Index I12
Title & Cover    Overview of Features & Author    Table of Contents    Chapter Contents    Instructors' Manual
A New Psychology of Women, 3rd Ed Women, Men, and Power Sex & Gender: an Introduction
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 Last updated September 9th, 2010