Proposed Legislative Acts

                   to come before the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament
                                                     (time and venue TBA)

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Please note:  All persons who have been delegates to one or more sessions of the Parliament or who have taken the pledge to the Constitution for the Federation of Earth are welcome to write and submit legislation to the Committee on Legislative Review. Such bills, once in proper legislative drafting from, can become proposed legislative acts for the coming session of Parliament.  All such persons are encouraged to study existing legislation before writing in order to avoid duplication or contradictions.  Existing legislation from the first 12 sessions of Parliament can be found at www.worldproblems.net

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Contents


1. Transition Process for National Governments

2. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions Act

3. Surveillance Limitations Act



 

 

 

(1)

A Bill for an Act:

Transition Process for National Governments

Joining the Earth Federation

Whereas, the Constitution for the Federation of Earth assumes that all nations joining the Earth Federation will conform to the requirements of the Constitution, including Articles 12 and 13 providing extensive protection of human rights: political, social, and global (i.e. the rights to peace and a protected environment);

And whereas even provisional world government "shall function in accordance with the provisions of this constitution" (Art. 19.E.8);

And whereas Article 14 guarantees to nations entering the Earth Federation (1) full faith and credit to member nations’ public records, acts, and legislation consistent with the several provisions of the Earth Constitution and (2) the right to choose their own internal political, economic, and social systems "consistent with the several provisions of the Constitution;"

And whereas, Article 14 implies that Earth Federation shall bring public acts and legislation not consistent with the Constitution into conformity with the Constitution and that Earth Federation shall bring political, economic, and social systems not consistent with the Constitution into conformity with the Constitution;

And whereas, the principle of nationhood itself is understood by the Constitution to be secondary to the principles of individuals’ human rights and liberties, so that, under Article 17, people may ratify the Constitution directly, independently of the national entities in which they reside;

And whereas, the Constitution provides for three stages in the process of actualization of the Earth Federation to assume its full powers, thereby recognizing a transitional period from the old system of militarized nation-states to the new Earth Federation system;

And whereas, the Constitution specifically recognizes a transitional process for nations joining the Earth Federation in which they turn over only weapons of mass destruction to the World Disarmament Agency during the first operative stage and are not required to finally disband their militaries until the second operative stage in the actualization of the Earth Federation;

And whereas, the distinction between the immediate guarantee of the rights identified in Article 12 and the commitment to actualizing with reasonable speed the rights identified in Article 13 indicates that nearly all nations will be part of a transition process as identified in these features of the Earth Constitution;

And whereas, it may be that today no nation on Earth fully conforms to the Earth Constitution in terms of national military, human rights record, or social requirements for decision-making that truly protects the rights of its citizens;

We delegates at the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament recognize the need to further define and enable the process of transition from the condition of ‘sovereign,’ non-democratic, often militarized nation-states to membership within the Earth Federation.

1. The Federation of Earth is open to all people and nations. The World Executive, World Courts and any other entity must not exclude any nation or group from joining the Earth Federation that has satisfied the criteria specified in Article 17 of the Earth Constitution.

1.1 Nations or groups with political, economic, social systems, or practices not in conformance with the Constitution shall enter into a transitional agreement and begin a process of transition.

1.2 Nations or groups governed by a military, dictator, oligarchy, or other government that does not conform to the Earth Constitution do not have to eliminate this mode of governance immediately but only according to the timed stages in the transitional agreement.

2. Transition Plan

If the first operative stage of the Earth Federation has not yet been activated under the criteria set forth in Article 17, representatives of interested governments shall meet with duly authorized members of the Provisional World Government to develop a detailed transition plan that begins either before ratification or once the nation or a constituent electoral district of that nation has given final ratification to the Earth Constitution.

3. Transition Council

If the first operative stage of the Earth Federation has already been activated, the appropriate members of the newly elected Presidium and Executive Cabinet shall meet with the Commission for Legislative Review and a Transition Council to review provisional world legislation and institutions already in place that bear on the question of the process of transition for states or electoral districts entering the Earth Federation toward conformity of the Earth Constitution. The review shall include this legislative act.

4. In the light of these meetings, the Transition Council shall revisit the plan presented in this legislation. The Transition Council may develop further transitional plans for nations joining the Earth Federation, subject to approval by the World Parliament.

5. Composition of the Transition Council

The Transition Council composes of 30 elected members and 7 ex-officio members:

5.01 The Presidium and Executive Cabinet of the Earth Federation will nominate 30 qualified persons from at least 5 continents and 10 different nations to serve as the Transition Council charged with working with nations in the process of transition to membership in the Earth Federation.

5.02 From these 30 nominees, the World Parliament will elect, by a majority vote of the combined three houses, a council section of 20 members from at least 5 continents and 10 different nations to serve on the Transition Council.

5.03 The Office of the World Ombudsmus shall nominate 10 candidates for the Council, two from each continental division and from at least 5 different nations, of which the Parliament will elect 5.

5.04 The Office of the World Attorney Generals shall nominate 10 candidates for the Council, two from each continental division and from at least 5 different nations, of which the Parliament will elect 5.

5.05 The term of membership for all members on the Transition Council is 5 years with a maximum of 2 consecutive terms.

5.06 The World Parliament shall determine salary for the 30 elected members of the Transition Council.

5.07. Minimum age for persons serving on the Transition Council is 30 years of age, except for ex-officio members, for which the minimum age is 21. Other requirements are credible background experience in the humanities, politics, and law.

5.08. The Transition Council is responsible to the World Parliament and shall make quarterly reports. The Transition Council shall make interim reports when specified by the Parliament.

5.09. An absolute majority vote of the World Parliament in combined session may at any time remove for cause any member of this Council. Original sources shall replace removed members with qualified replacement members within 60 days.

5.10. Members of the Presidium, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, and the Minister for Democratic Procedures are ex-officio members of the Transition Council. As Ex-Officio members with other responsibilities, Presidium members and Ministers need not be present at meetings of the Transition Council, but need be present to vote in Transition Council decisions. The Transition Council shall elect a Vice-President of the Presidium to serve as Chair of the Transition Council. Any other member of the Presidium, the Minister for Exterior Relations of the Earth Federation, or the Minister for Democratic Procedures of the Earth Federation may serve in the Vice-President’s absence or on procedural grounds.

6. Any nation may join the Earth Federation immediately upon satisfying the criteria set forth in Article 17 of the Earth Constitution thereby appointing or electing representatives to the House of Peoples and House of Nations according to the provisions of the Constitution.

7. Representatives of interested governments and/or representatives of governments that have ratified the Earth Constitution shall meet either collectively or separately with the 30 member Transition Council or designated members of the Council to formulate a process of transition to conformity with the Earth Constitution.

7.1. These meetings may commence earlier, but not later, than within two months after final ratification is completed.

7.2 A state member may agree to a transition plan earlier, but shall formally agree on a specific plan no later than four months after the date of final ratification.

7.3 The Transition Council shall divide this transition process into timed stages by which certain changes shall take place. For example, the Transition Council may expect a member state in the process of transition to amend the state’s respective Constitution, or to adopt or repeal certain state legislation. The Transition Council may expect the disbanding or creation of certain institutions (e.g., secret police, or secret detention centers, or practices within detention centers that violate human rights). (Note that state constitutional amendment is not required as any prior condition to ratification of the Earth Constitution, and that state constitutional provisions that contradict or appear to impede ratification are annulled by provision 17.1.11 of the Earth Constitution.)

7.4 The conversion shall take place within reasonable and achievable time periods with final say concerning these time periods determined by a majority vote of the Transition Council.

7.5 Although the agreement between the Council and nations will be unique to each nation joining the Federation, depending on its specific economic, political, and social conditions, the Transition Council shall develop a standard model for transition that can serve as a guide and template that can be used to help facilitate the process of reaching a transition agreement with each nation.

8. Dictators, military rulers, oligarchies, or other governments not in conformance with the rights granted by the Earth Constitution shall devise and implement procedures for transition to appropriate institutions and other protections of human rights conforming to the Earth Constitution with reasonable speed as determined by agreement with the Transition Council.

8.1. Dictators, military rulers, oligarchies, or other governments not in conformance with the Earth Constitution do not have to give up their power or authority immediately but shall follow the timed arrangements specified in the Transitional Plan.

8.2. Since the Earth Constitution does not specify that nations participating in the House of Nations be elected democracies, some nations might find suitable forms of government that are not democratically elected, and current leaders of non-democratic nations might retain their positions as long as the human rights of their populations (as specified in Article 12 of the Earth Constitution) become fully protected.

8.3. In the transition agreement, participating states shall agree to work with the Earth Federation to implement the additional rights specified in Article 13 of the Earth Constitution and to participate in any programs currently in progress to implement the rights guaranteed under Article 13.

8.4. One purpose of the transition plan is to allow a specifically defined grace period for persons in governments not conforming to the laws of the World Parliament to avoid or mitigate prosecution through reasonable efforts to bring their actions and nations into conformity with world law. The Transition Council and respective nation shall write specific agreements to this effect into the transition plan.

8.5. Since individuals are subject to criminal prosecution, not governments collectively, transition plans shall identify individuals responsible for completing certain transition tasks and/or (since individuals occupying posts may change) the occupants of specific functions or offices within the government subject to the transition agreement.

8.6. The Transition Council, Ombudsmus, and World Attorney Generals are not under requirement to prosecute or indict (for any pre-existing condition or element specified in the transition plan) any democratic or non-democratic rulers who join the Earth Federation and who are implementing the respective transition plan in good faith.

However, this provision enjoins the Transition Council, World Ombudsmus and World Attorneys General to be alert to alleged breaches of the respective transition plan, identifying individual perpetrators and accompanying evidence if breaches are suspected, particularly if breaches involve violation of world law.

8.7. Leaders and citizens remain subject to the full laws of the Earth Federation as protected by the World Ombudsmus, the World Attorney Generals and Police, and the World Judiciary.

9. The stages of conversion may differ from country to country depending on the agreements reached between the representatives of the country and the Transition Council, but, in general, the Transition Council shall treat nations with the same requirements and same impartiality, using the standard transition model (described above) as a template.

10. In coordination with inspection procedures of the World Disarmament Agency, the agreement shall specify a process of inspection and/or confirmation of the agreed upon transitional stages. The Transition Council may institutionalize the process, drawing upon the resources of existing human rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, or the UN High Commission for Human Rights.

11. The Council will, by 2/3 majority vote, certify that each stage in the agreement has been completed and confirmed.

11.1. Once all the stages in the plan have been completed and confirmed, the Transition Council has authority to certify countries as fully integrated into the Federation through this vote.

11.2. Failure to meet the agreed upon deadlines will result delays and/or penalties specified in the transitional agreement such as loss of the power to appoint representatives to the House of Nations, or other pre-agreed sanctions, including possible prosecution through the Bench for Public Cases or the bench for Criminal Cases.

11.3. Within the limits of the World Penal Code, the Transition Agreement itself may assess liability to prosecution and severity of penalties within the timed stages specified in the transition plan. Within the limits of the World Penal Code, the World Court may assess or increase these liabilities and severity of penalties if these are not specified in the transition agreement.

12. Countries not satisfied with the decisions of the Council at any stage may take the issue to the Bench for Human Rights of the World Supreme Court, which may wish to review the procedures and decisions of the Transition Council for this particular case.

12.1. Decisions of the Human Rights Bench of the World Court with regard to any nation that has joined the Earth Federation under a transition agreement are final, unless eligible for review by the Appeals Bench of the World Court.

12.2. In cases of a judgment against leaders of a nation that has failed to meet the requirements of its transition agreement, the World Court shall return the issue to the Transition Council to devise a new or modified transition plan and set of procedures of inspection or confirmation of that plan.

12.3. If criminal activities or negligence regarding the items specified in the transition plan are uncovered, the World Attorneys General may serve criminal indictments upon specific individuals.

12.4. Such indictments, if served, do not preclude the development of a new or modified transition plan for the country in question.

12.5. If failure to meet transition plan deadlines or other specifications are not evidently due to criminal activity or negligence, the accountable offices of the national government might yet be subject to prosecution in the Bench for Public Cases of the World Court System.

13. The most important consideration for the Transitional Council shall be the protection of universal human rights in the countries joining the Earth Federation as specified in Articles 12 and 13.

13.1. The kind of political, economic, or social system may vary from country to country. The Transition Council shall give full faith and credit to the legislation, records, public acts, and judicial proceedings of the countries joining the Earth Federation, as stated in Article 14.

13.2. The Transition Council, therefore, must not see its responsibility as ideologically promoting certain political, economic, or social systems but rather as protecting the universal human rights of all persons who are members of the Earth Federation, including all of the rights identified in Article 12 (which form the criteria by which completion of the transition process is judged) and willingness to progress on the rights identified in Article 13.

13.3. It is the responsibility of the Transition Council in conjunction with nations joining the Earth Federation to devise a system of inspection and confirmation to ensure the reality and security of this protection of rights within each country joining the Federation.

13.4. Once a nation has been certified by the Transition Council as fully conforming to the Earth Constitution, the on-going protection of the human rights within that nation are the responsibility of the government of that nation, the World Police, the World Ombudsmus, world citizens and other agencies of the Earth Federation as per the requirements specified within the Earth Constitution.

14. General military base transitions.

Once the Earth Federation reaches its second operative stage as specified in Article 17, the process of general disarmament shall begin for Earth Federation nations. This process shall also be specified in a transition plan that is coordinated with the World Disarmament Agency and the Transition Council. The plan shall be designed for a successful transition to the rule of civil law and to avoid vulnerability or insecurity for any of the member nations.

14.1. World Legislative Act Number 36, the Guantánamo Bay Directive, addressed the transition of a particular military base. Generally, the Transition Council shall address military bases worldwide under the terms of world legislation and in particular world legislative act numbers 1, 13, 14, 34 and 36. (Nuclear Prohibition, World Peace Act, World Security Act, the Dismantling Procedure and Guantánamo.)

14.2. Whether democratic or not, nations are required to immediately begin dismantling of all nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction as required under world legislation. Nations shall work with the Executive Council of the World Disarmament Agency to ensure compliance. The terms of the disarmament schedule developed between a state, the Executive Council of the World Disarmament Agency, and the Transition Council are parts of the Transition Agreement.

14.3. A nation may request assistance for complying with the Transition Agreement. This may include assistance with civil/criminal law enforcement training for members of the armed forces of the respective nation, with a view toward the demilitarization of that state’s armed forces.

If to deter perceived aggressive threats or instabilities from outside or from within a nation, the respective nation expresses a need for more civil police enforcement officers, the Transition Council may schedule an agreement to help increase the number of civil police enforcement officers, either at the world federal level or at any lower jurisdiction within that country. Earth Federation agencies shall comply with Transition Agreements approved by the Transition Council provided the agreements (or respective portions thereof) have not been countermanded by the World Parliament. Civil police enforcement officers at every level are responsible to respect human and civil rights as specified in the Earth Constitution and in world legislation.

Forms of assistance may include the following: 14.3.1. training of states’ residents as world federal officers; 14.3.2. training of state member officers (including military officers, enlisted troops and civil police officers) in world federal law enforcement and cooperation; 14.3.3. assignment of world federal officers for special security assistance; 13.3.4. employment, including salaries for world federal officers; 13.3.5. equipment, including instruments of defense and munitions not prohibited under world legislation; 13.3.6. food, uniforms and other supplies.

14.4. Generally, military bases of military personnel undergo conversion to civil law enforcement. Federation agencies may decide on other appropriate civilian uses. The bases may continue operation as civil police stations where law enforcement officers can receive training and serve duties. According to the transition agreement, military bases may convert either to operate as national civil police stations, as world federal civil police stations, or as a mix.

14.5. Although state members shall disclose weapons of mass destruction immediately, as per world legislative act number 34 (the Dismantling Procedure), troop position and movements, and troop equipment and supplies, including non-prohibited munitions amounts and locations, remains confidential during the transition period, and is only disclosed to world federal authorities or others on a need-to-know basis. The Transition Council must not disclose this information through transition agreements, nor penalize national leaders or national governments for non-disclosure of this information, throughout the first operative stage of Earth Federation.

14.6. No later than 6 months after the attainment of the second operative stage, the Transition Council shall begin plans for drawdown of national military troop levels throughout the Earth Federation. The plans shall include provisions for a concomitant increase in world federal enforcement and World Ombudsmus officers or other public employment (such as the Earth Federation Service Corps) to offset loss of employment by former military personnel. By the end of the second operative stage, all military forces shall have disbanded or converted, as per Earth Constitution Article 17.4.6. At full operative stage, all regulations regarding confidentiality with regard to military troop numbers and positions cease to have effect.

14.7. Generally, financing of military base transitions is similar to the provisions made for the Guantánamo base transition, as described in world legislative act number 36. The Transition Council shall draw up a standard transition model for military base conversions, using the Guantánamo world legislation as a model.

 

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(2)

 

Provisional World Parliament, 13th Session

A Bill for an Act

Truth and Reconciliation Commissions Act

Short Title: Truth and Reconciliation

 

Whereas, due to the deep complexity of the world we live in, and the immense internal and external pressures on individuals within all nations to compromise democratic principles, human rights, freedom, and/or equality in a world that is often a dog eat dog affair filled with dangers and temptations;

And due to the fact that many officials of nations have been compromised by pressures from gigantic corporate, nation-state, or criminal forces that treat the world as a field for exploitation and domination;

And due to the fact that the emerging Earth Federation is dedicated to establishing a new world system premised on peace, justice, equality, freedom, prosperity, and environmental sustainability;

And because the newly emergent Earth Federation will seek peace and reconciliation among all the world’s actors;

We delegates of the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament hereby establish the Truth and Reconciliation Bureau of the Earth Federation.

 1. General definition for use by the Bureau:  A truth and reconciliation commission (TR Commission) is tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government and/or non-state actors (depending on circumstances) with the goal of resolving conflict inherited from past injustices, conflicts, or perceptions of such conflicts and injustices.  South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, established after the ending of apartheid, is often thought of as a model of such commissions. The purpose of commissions is to record an accurate and honest history of what happened (and not rewrite history in the service of some state or group), to clear the air through public testimonies and proceedings, and to balance forgiveness and reconciliation of past wrongs with a justice that is often demanded by victims of past wrongs.  This is a difficult and delicate task but extremely important if the world is to move forward into a new era of peace with justice.

 2. Qualifications and Statute of Limitations

The Earth Federation government does not see its duty as judging and punishing past wrongs within or between nations, but rather in establishing a system of peace with justice in which such wrongs do not occur in the future. Earth Federation duty is not to play politics, and not to favor the rich or governments over the poor or marginalized groups, but to bring people together to overcome past resentments and perceptions through establishing an honest and objective historical record, through supporting efforts to bring fair and impartial justice, and through promoting forgiveness and reconciliation wherever possible.

For clarity in preservation of the principle of no ex post facto prosecution, Truth and Reconciliation commissions of the Earth Federation address cases for which the circumstances and transgressions pre-date the development of the World Penal Code provisions of the World Peace Act (penal provisions effective date 22 September 2003), or for which the circumstances and transgressions otherwise pre-date the respective provisions of the World Penal Code and world legislation (World Penal Code effective date: 28 December 2003). As per World Legislative Act #1, Article 6, certain bomb prohibition provisions have an effective date of 11 March 1983, though without sentencing provisions.

Truth and Reconciliation Commissions shall address the sentencing portion of criminal case convictions arising from criminal activities codified by the Provisional World Parliament committed during the interim period from 11 March 1983 until the respective criminal activities sentencing parameter effective date assigned by the World Parliament (22 September 2003 in most cases.)

The World Attorneys General may prosecute world crimes committed later than the dates of the respective sentencing-parameter effective date but before the beginning date of the first operative stage of Earth Federation. However, based upon plea bargaining, transition plans, and other factors, the World Attorneys General may refer cases for disposal by a Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Combined majority vote of the Regional World Advocates may decline the formation or operation of the TR Commission for particular cases. The 5 World Ombudsen shall vote in case of a tie among the Regional Advocates.

The World Attorneys General may investigate and prosecute world crimes committed later than the date of preliminary or final ratification for any nation or world administrative district, rather than depend upon TR Commissions for conducting the investigation.

 3. After the first operative stage of the Earth Federation has commenced, the World Financial Administration shall fund each nation or nations within or without the Federation who request this service to establish a truth and reconciliation commission.

 4. The Truth and Reconciliation Bureau is a Department of the World Ombudsmus. The World Ombudsmus shall establish at least one commission of the Bureau within each World Region.  Each commission shall report quarterly to their respective World Advocate and to the respective Regional Bench for Human Rights Cases, including a prospective budget for operation of the commission within the region. The Bench for Human Rights Cases shall report quarterly to the World Financial Administration, itemizing budgets for costs of conducting public hearings.

 5. A Truth and Reconciliation Fund is hereby created. The World Advocates shall include budgeting provisions and report of expenses for their respective TR commissions to the World Financial Administration and to the Presidium. The World Financial Administration shall fund the Bureau using Earth Currency according to the World Parliament allocation to the fund, rather than in hard currencies.

The World Financial Administration shall fund the Regional or District Bench for Human Rights for the costs of conducting the public hearings.

 6. The Bureau shall hire experts and scholars in the area of truth and reconciliation as needed to effectively accomplish work. The Bureau shall establish a public on-line library of resources and ideas for TR Commission work.

 7. The Bureau shall cooperate where appropriate with the Department of Conflict Resolution that operates under the authority of the World Attorneys General so as to promote peace in general and to not duplicate efforts. In general, the latter will deal with conflicts between groups not requiring the more elaborate apparatus of establishing a correct historical record, public hearings of past wrongs, and possible legal administration of justice.

Any nation or nations (within or without the Federation) may voluntarily seek help or advice about establishing a TR commission but it is not mandatory for nations to do so.

 8.1 The World Ombudsmus may also establish Truth and Reconciliation Commissions between nations, between groups of nations, and/or between Federation and non-Federation nations.

8.2. Nations seeking aid with a TR commission may choose between two options:

8.2.1. Nations may request that the Bureau set up and organize the commission for them; or

8.2.2. Nations may request advice and funding from the Bureau to set up a TR commission for themselves. In either case, strict financial accountability is required.

 9. The Bureau shall offer a variety of models by which nations can set up Truth and Reconciliation Commissions for their own needs. If nations request that the Bureau undertake this task, the Bureau shall study the situation. The Bureau shall report to the nation and to the Office of World Ombudsmus within six months of the national request regarding any decision to act. If the Bureau and World Ombudsmus accepts the need for the ER Commission, the Bureau shall, within six months, set up a model that is best suited to that situation.

 10. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions shall file suit with the Bench for Human Rights Cases for conducting TR case public hearings. TR Commissions shall include estimates of time needed for providing the public testimony. The Human Rights Bench shall respond within 60 days, assigning dockets to Regional or District Courts of the Human Rights Bench. If these Courts are not yet operating, the Bench shall provide judges for the District, and may rent chambers in a location most suitable for the hearings.  TR Commissions are enjoined to observe the regulations and procedure of the Human Rights Court (World Legislative Act #15). TR Commissions and the Human Rights Court shall honor Transition Agreements and other World Amnesty Agreements that have been approved by the World Parliament.  These agreements provide conditional protection against prosecution in the World Bench for Criminal Cases. However, no one is immune from summons or subpoena to testify in cases of the Human Rights Court.

 11. Prior to the first operative stage of the Earth Federation, the Provisional World Government under the Earth Constitution shall, to the best of its resources, promote truth and reconciliation commissions worldwide.


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(3)

 Surveillance Limitations Act

PWP Session 13

 

Whereas, personal liberty includes a number of fundamental rights bestowed upon the citizens of the Earth Federation by Article 12 of the Earth Constitution,

And whereas, Article 12.18 states guarantees the “right of privacy of person, family and association; prohibition of surveillance as a means of political control,”

We delegates of the 13th session of the Provisional World Parliament hereby enact the following provisional world legislation regulating the activity of surveillance by the government of the Earth Federation.

1.      Surveillance for purposes of crime prevention or gathering evidence of suspected crimes shall be limited to the office of the World Attorneys General and the World Police, and, for certain purposes defined below, to the World Ombudsmus and the World Disarmament Agency, and may be conducted by no other agency or organ of the Earth Federation.

2.      The World Attorneys General and Police, and the World Ombudsmus and World Disarmament Agency shall not contract out surveillance to private agencies for any reason.

3.      General surveillance may take place in public places such as banks, shopping malls, or traffic intersections for purposes of public safety and crime prevention.

4.      General surveillance shall not take place through technology embedded in cell phones, computers, automobiles, or the monitoring of internet usage.

5.      General surveillance of the internet and/or worldwide web may be conducted for purposes of identifying criminal activities in this forum as defined by the World Parliament.

5.1    Such surveillance my not be used as a means for political control or intimidation, nor for restricting freedom of expression and thought on the internet.

6.      No hidden chips or other devices for purposes of law enforcement monitoring shall be placed on individual persons without their written knowledge and informed consent.

6.1  An exception to number 6 may be made for convicted criminals who are released from custody under the penal system and, with their knowledge, may be monitored according to penal statutes, procedures, and laws developed by the World Parliament, for example, through the use of ankle bands.

7.      All surveillance directed toward the tracking of specific individuals or groups shall require a warrant specifying the evidence for the suspicion of criminal activity and the specific individuals to be monitored.

7.1    This requirement also applies to the use of undercover police officers.

7.2    The information gathered in such surveillance shall be specified and unrelated information gathered may not be used to support additional charges of criminal activity not specified by the warrant.

8.      There shall be no surveillance of persons in their homes, apartments, or on their private property in any audio, visual, or other form without a warrant citing the evidence for suspected criminal activity as well as the purposes and limits on the information to be gathered.

8.1    This prohibition applies as well to satellite or other airborne surveillance.

9.      The World Ombudsmus may make use of surveillance to monitor the activities of government agents suspected of corruption, especially regarding the violation of human rights. 

9.1   Such surveillance shall also require a warrant either from the office of the World Attorneys General or from the World Judiciary.  If an Attorney General is under suspicion the warrant could come from the Court, and visa versa.

10.   The World Ombudsmus may not use general surveillance in public places as for the purposes of public safety or crime prevention.

10.1        However, it will have access to any information gathered by the World Police should this be considered useful in the protection of human rights.

11.   The World Ombudsmus may use undercover agents to gather information concerning the violation of human rights.

`      11.1   However, such agents require a warrant (approved by the Court or an Attorney General) specifying the evidence for the suspicion of human rights violations and the specific individuals to be monitored.

12.   There will be no need for military style secrecy under the Earth Federation, since “war,” the relation to some “enemy” that is considered life or death for entire nations or groups, will no longer exist.  There shall, therefore, be no absolute secrecy or lack of transparency for the Police, Ombudsmus, or World Disarmament Agency, regarding their surveillance activities.

12.1         Normal civil police secrecy or Ombudsmus investigative secrecy will be done with careful record keeping and will be open to the World Parliament or its appropriate committees.

12.2  If some member of the World Parliament is under surveillance or investigation due to evidence of suspected criminal activity, exceptions to this principle of openness to the World Parliament shall be specified in the warrant.

12.3  This procedure also applies in case of police investigation of some agent of the World Ombudsmus, or Ombudsmus investigation of some agent of the World Police or World Attorneys General.  Exceptions to transparency shall be specified in the warrant and reasons given for these exceptions.

       13.  The World Disarmament Agency, in cooperation with the World Police and the World Ombudsmus, shall have the authority to use aerial or satellite surveillance to ensure disarmament and prevent rearmament of the planet.

       13.1.    Guidelines for this surveillance shall be developed by the World Parliament.

         13.2.  In the first operative stage of the Earth Federation, this shall be directed solely at the production or possession of weapons of mass destruction.

          13.3.   In the second and third stages of world government, this shall be directed at the design, production, transport, or possession of all weapons of war as these are defined as criminal activities by the World Parliament.

          13.4.    Such surveillance must be restricted to the purposes stated in this act. 

       13.5.  If violations regarding banned weapons are suspected, additional surveillance must be directed at individual suspects and justified by a warrant. 

         13.6.  If persons are prosecuted with regard to illegal design, production, transport, or possession of weapons, the evidence presented from surveillance must be evidence gathered by surveillance performed under a warrant.