Current Listing of Continuing Education Courses for Nurses

GOUT: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT (1 CE)

Laura LaRue, DNP, FNP-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  •  Address the prevalence and related conditions of gout.
  •  Integrate the pathophysiology of gout, its presentation and risk factors.
  •  Differentiate the stages of gout and its presentation and subsequent diagnosis.
  •  Describe the rationale, guidelines and sequencing of therapy for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
  •  Define the parameters for patient communication, education and adherence to long-term therapy.      

Abstract

Gout has long been known as the ‘disease of kings’ or the ‘rich man’s disease’ and was based on the idea that wealth and power lead to overindulgence of food and spirits. It is precipitation of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) deposits in join tissue, commonly the first metatarsophalangeal joint. It is more common in men than women usually developing in the middle age (Ryan, 2015). Certain medications such as diuretics play a role in onset of gout and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the choice for treatment of both acute and chronic gout. Uric crystals are formed from purines which are part of the chemical structure of genes of all plants, animals and humans. There are four stages of gout with the first being an asymptomatic phase but uric acid crystals are being deposited into tissues. These crystals still damage tissue even if they are not causing pain. The acute stage is major inflammation of a joint or tissue proceeding to an intercritical stage of flares and symptom-free periods during which the deposition of gout crystals in joints continue. This deposit of monosodium crystals results in changes in the joints. This stage becomes shorter and shorter as the disease progresses to the fourth and last stage which is chronic. Gout can destroy joints and lead to disability.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE OLDER ADULT (3 CEs)

Lisa Campo DNP, ANP-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  •  Identify the ‘transparency of a window’ to assess the older adult.
  •  Address the aging issues/circumstances that may impact the assessment of the older adult.
  •  Identify symptoms of common illness that may present in an atypical manner with older adults.
  •  Incorporate assessment criteria for inclusion in the health history of the older adult.
  •  Compare normal and abnormal findings that may prove to be red flags when assessing the older adult.
  •  Discuss the screening and Preventive Care Recommendations.
  •  Incorporate the necessary tools to evaluate and expand upon the assessment of the older adult.
  •  Discuss the importance of early screening for cognitive impairment.
  •  Identify intervention recommendations following the assessment of normal and abnormal physical findings in an older adult.
  •  Discuss nutrition, pain, sleep, functional and psychological criteria and appropriate tools that will play a major role in assessment and interventions.

Abstract

The State of Aging & Health in America (2013) discusses the shift in the proportion of older adults as unprecedented in the history of the country. There are two contributing factors: longer life spans and aging Baby Boomers that will combine to double the population of Americans over 65 during the next two decades. They will number about 72 million, roughly 20% of the population. Older adults have two or more chronic illnesses, and many face challenges: functionally, cognitively, and emotionally. The increasing older population demand that health care providers not only expand upon their physical assessment competencies but also identify the multiple imposing challenges that present with this population. This module will provide the parameters to guide the provider when assessing an older adult.

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DIABETES AND THE OLDER ADULT (3 CEs)

Carey Cole, RN, FNP-BC, DNP

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the pathophysiology of diabetes in the older adult, organ involvement and glucose regulation.
  • Describe the presentation of diabetes in the older adult and its specific symptomatology.
  • Describe screening criteria for diabetes in the older adult. 
  • Identify two modifiable risk factors for diabetes and their inclusion in the treatment plan.
  • Identify three non-modifiable risk factors for diabetes and their subsequent intervention strategies.
  • Discuss the importance of lifestyle modifications in the treatment modalities as it pertains to the older adult.
  • Appreciate cultural differences when treating diabetes in the older adult.
  • Describe common comorbidities associated with diabetes in the older adult.
  • Identify at least three yearly screenings a person with diabetes should have.
  • Identify appropriate medication management for diabetes in the older adult.
  • Describe medications that should be used with caution in older adults.
  • Discuss when it is appropriate to begin insulin therapy in the older adult.
  • Identify three non-pharmaceutical treatments for diabetes.
  • Describe complimentary therapy for diabetes.
  • Identify barriers that may arise when teaching the older adult about his/her diabetes.

Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus, if not identified early and controlled well, can have a detrimental impact on the health of the older adult. This article will explore the care and individualized treatment and ways to encourage individuals to optimize their health in the presence of this disease. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death among Americans and is estimated to cost one hundred seventy four billion dollars annually in direct and indirect costs. Direct medical costs are those that include treatments of the disease as well as treatments of complications from the disease. Indirect costs include disability, loss of work hours, and premature death (American Diabetes Association (ADA), 2012; Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2012; “Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S”, 2003). According to the CDC, it is estimated that there are eleven million Americans over the age of sixty-five that have the diagnosis of diabetes and approximately another two million who are undiagnosed. This equates to twenty seven percent of this population. The group with the highest prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes is those aged forty five to sixty four (CDC, 2012). These are the older adults of tomorrow whom health providers will care for in their practice settings.

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ANTICOAGULANTS (3 CEs)

Laura LaRue DNP, FNP-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Review the use in clinical practice of antiplatelets, anticoagulants and non-vitamin k anticoagulants.
  • Review the effect of Vitamin K on clotting factors in the liver.
  • Assess data from key anticoagulation stroke prevention trials, including efficacy and safety of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs).
  • Review the pharmacology of antiplatelets, anticoagulants to include NOACs and their clinical relevance in evidence-based guidelines.
  • Review possible ways to reverse bleeding of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs).
  • Evaluate reasons for underuse of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients at thromboembolic risk.
  • Apply proper anticoagulation dosing to ensure greater efficacy and safety for stroke prevention in patients at thromboembolic risk.
  • Discuss strategies to manage bleeding events.      Discuss use of these anticoagulant agents in patients with renal impairment.

Abstract

Thrombus causes most of cardiovascular diseases and deaths. Thrombus is the most common cause of three cardiovascular disorders to including ischemic heart disease (acute coronary syndrome), stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) (ISTH Steering Committee, 2014).

Thromboembolism deaths in the United States are estimated at 300,000 annually. According to the CDC in 2013, there was between 60,000 to 100,000 deaths from venous thrombus (CDC, 2015).  The incidence nearly doubles in each decade of life over the age of 50. Individuals considered at high risk for blood clots include: trauma patients, surgical patients especially total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR), stroke patients, MI patients, spinal cord injury patients and metastatic cancer patients.

This continuing education will focus on common indicators for use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets and novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Another goal of this educational unit is to understand how clots are formed and how to treat clots appropriately.

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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION (1.5 CEs)

Kathleen Cox, PhD, RN

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to: Identify the direct and indirect costs of conflict.

  • Identify levels types of conflict.
  • Describe transitions in thinking about conflict.
  • Analyze the conflict process.
  • Distinguish between conflict management and conflict resolution.
  • Evaluate approaches used to manage conflict.
  • Describe a script for carefronting.
  • Examine the principles of principled negotiation.
  • Identify appropriate carefronting responses to use in conflict situations.

Abstract

Healthcare care managers are challenged to create healthy work environments, but unfortunately, conflict is rampant in healthcare organizations. The consequences of unresolved conflict to healthcare personnel, the organization, patients, and the work environment are enormous. It is generally accepted that conflict is inevitable, but the conflict must be well managed. Thus, all nursing personnel must acquire the knowledge and skills needed for conflict management and resolution in order to minimize the negative effects of conflict and contribute to the creation of healthy work environments. The purpose of this continuing education module is to provide an overview of the costs of conflict, definitions related to levels and types of conflict, transitions in thinking about conflict as well as to analyze the conflict process and conflict management and resolution strategies. Specific guidelines for carefronting and consideration of the goal of the conflict and the relationship of those involved in the situation are provided to guide staff nurses in the choice of appropriate conflict management and resolution strategies in a given conflict situation.

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ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS OF DEMENTIA (1 CE)

Lisa L. Onega, PhD, RN, MBA, FNP-BC, GNP-BC, CNS-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Identify the prevalence of dementia in the United States.
  • Differentiate between 10 types of dementia.
  • Discuss health conditions that complicate assessment of dementia.
  • Describe strategies to diagnose dementia.
  • Explain five clinical challenges associated with dementia.
  • Discuss a case management approach in treating dementia.

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues in assessing and diagnosing dementia, diagnostic strategies, clinical challenges associated with dementia, and a case management approach. Over 20% of older adults have dementia, and the risk of dementia increases with age. Diagnosing dementia is challenging because there are many types of dementia, and concurrent health conditions may complicate accurate assessment. Commonly, primary care providers diagnose dementia through history, physical exam, lab work, cognitive screening instruments, and appropriate referrals. Clinical challenges associated with dementia that individuals may experience during the course of their illness trajectory adversely influence outcomes and quality of life if not addressed in a thoughtful, comprehensive, and kind manner. Five of these challenges are: 1. psychiatric and behavioral changes, 2. incontinence, 3. pain, 4. driving a vehicle, and 5. decreased cognitive ability and requisite caregiving needs. To provide comprehensive care, clinicians should use a case management approach, which meets the expertise, informational, and resource needs of individuals and family members dealing with dementia.  

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BASICS OF DERMATOLOGY (3 CEs)

Faye Lyons, RN, FNP-BC, DNP

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin.
  • Discuss the proper technique for performing a skin examination.
  • Discuss the components of obtaining a complete history.
  • Discuss the use of a Wood’s light and use of dermascope.
  • Describe the four dermatological signs that may occur with certain rashes.
  • Describe the characteristics of a Lentigo, types of Nevi, and Seborrheic Keratoses.
  • Describe the different types of skin cancers: Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma.
  • Describe the two types of Contact dermatitis.
  • Describe cellulitis, causes, and treatments.
  • Describe impetigo, etiology, and treatment.
  • Describe paronychia and treatment.
  • Identify types of psoriasis presentations and treatments.
  • Describe rosacea, triggers, signs/symptoms, types of rosacea presentations, and treatments.
  • Describe the different Tinea infections and treatments for each.
  • Discuss special considerations and patient education recommendations.

Abstract

The need for improving dermatological skills and education is vital due to the high rates of skin diseases and variations of these diseases (Shelby, 2008). Primary care physicians or advanced practice nurses are often the first to evaluate a skin compliant. Therefore, all providers are challenged to educate themselves on common dermatological conditions and recognize abnormalities in the skin when present. However, even when the importance of this education is recognized, it is often unmet in clinical training (Courtenay & Carey, 2006).

The majority of health care professionals agree that rashes are often confusing and can be difficult to diagnose. Research indicates that there is a knowledge deficit of primary care providers with regard to identification of common rashes and treatment needs (Christenson & Sontheimer, 2010). A prospective study of 165 general practitioners found that in 57% of cases, their diagnosis was accurate with dermatologist diagnoses, but that 43% were inaccurate (Moreno, Tran, Chia, Lim, & Shumack, 2007). Resneck & Kimball (2008) reported that only 10% of advanced practice nurses had received formal dermatology training at a teaching institution: however, 53% stated that they had a dermatologic rotation in a clinic during their education.

The number of skin problems that present to primary care practices is 15.1 per 100 patient encounters, making dermatologic conditions the third most common reason for primary care appointments (Respiratory first and Musculoskeletal second) (Moreno et al., 2007). As advancements in medical knowledge develop, family medicine providers face the continually rising challenge of diagnosing and applying evidence-based treatments for skin disorders (Awadalla et al., 2008). This CE includes information regarding anatomy and physiology of the skin, skin assessment, nevi, skin cancers, and common rashes seen in primary care.

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CARING FOR THE TRANSGENDER INDIVIDUAL (1.5 CEs)

Dwight D. Faught, MSN, RN, PMHNP-BC, CMSRN

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Identify the role and responsibilities of mental health providers working with the transgender population.
  • Apply the diagnosis of gender dysphoria to the transgender individual.
  • Identify four possible differential diagnoses for individuals with gender dysphoria.
  • Understand the problems caused by having a 2 gender health care system.
  • Identify the benefits of transition for the transgender individual.

Abstract

Transgenderism has found itself in the forefront of popular media secondary to several high profile individuals who have made their gender transformation public. “Transgender individuals are those who cannot or choose not to conform to societal gender norms based on their physical or birth sex” (Xavier, et al. 2013). Kristin Beck, a former US Navy Seal and Caitlyn Jenner, former Olympic athlete, among many others have been catalysts escalating a very public debate about what it means to be transgender. This increase in visibility and public discourse provides a more open and accepted environment for transgender individuals to live as their perceived gender. As a health care provider, there is a higher probability that you may find yourself providing for the health care needs of this population.

There are many barriers to accessing health care in the United States of America. One barrier is that a treatable medical condition must exist in order to access care. It is generally accepted that being transgender is not a medical disorder requiring treatment; therefore, accessing transition care may be difficult or impossible to access. The generally accepted diagnosis for accessing transition care has been a psychiatric diagnosis based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association. Changes have been made in the most recent edition of the DSM fifth edition (DSM 5) to make the diagnosis less stigmatizing to the individual while providing a mechanism to allow access to medical care.

Mental health providers need to understand the diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria. It is a provider’s responsibility to correctly diagnosis gender dysphoria and to support, advocate, and assist clients to access medical services. Assisting individuals with gender dysphoria to access transitional care has been shown to positively impact lives both short and long term.

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PAIN MANAGEMENT (2 CEs)

Phyllis Whitehead, PhD, APRN, ACHPN, RN-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Identify the prevalence of pain in the older adult.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of pain in the older adult.
  • Describe the presentation of pain in the older adult and its specific symptomatology.
  • Describe when and how to assess for pain in the older adult.
  • Identify risk factors for pain and their inclusion in the treatment plan.
  • Discuss the importance of proper assessment and identification of pain as it pertains to the older adult.
  • Delineate cultural differences when treating pain in the older adult.
  • Identify strategies on how to provide proper pain management education for the older adult.
  • Identify appropriate medication management for pain in the older adult.
  • Describe medications that should be used with caution in older adults.
  • Discuss when it is appropriate to use opioids in the older adult.
  • Identify three non-pharmaceutical treatments for pain management.
  • Describe integrated therapy for pain management.
  • Identify barriers that may arise when teaching the older adult about proper pain management.

Abstract

Pain management is an essential component of caring for the older patient. Persistent pain affects over 100 million Americans which is more than the total number of adults affected by heart disease, cancer, and diabetes combined (IASP, 2011; IOM Blueprint, 2011). Unrelieved pain has significant impact upon the functional, cognitive, emotional and social domains of the older adult (Pautex, Herrmann, Le Lous, & Gold, 2009). Tailoring pain in the older patient is a multifaceted undertaking requiring a holistic approach that addresses physical, emotional, spiritual and social domains of the person. Since the nurses are often the first clinician to hear or observe a patient’s report of pain, it is crucial for nurses to perform a comprehensive pain assessment in the older adult (MacSorley, et al., 2014; Pasero & McCaffery, 2011). Nurses are pivotal to provide effective pain management that involves a multi-modal approach to treatment including pharmacological and psychological interventions.

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TICK BORNE ILLNESSES (2 CEs)

Amy Johnson, DNP, FNP-C

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • List the life stages of a tick and describe the geographic distribution with the United States.
  • List the common tick borne illnesses that have been identified in the Southeastern United States.
  • Identify the hallmark characteristic of Lyme disease.
  • Describe the three stages of Lyme disease and differentiate between them.
  • List the symptomatology of the classic presentation of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.
  • Explain the serious complications of untreated RMSF.
  • Differentiate between the common Erlichia syndromes.
  • Describe the onset and presentation of Babesiosis and how it differs from other tick borne illnesses.
  • List the appropriate treatment for each of the tick borne illnesses and the evidence behind the recommended treatments.
  • Discuss the inconsistencies with laboratory testing for tick borne illnesses and how this impedes diagnosis.
  • Differentiate STARI from Lyme disease.
  • Discuss implications for Alpha Gal and the pathophysiology of the delayed reaction.
  • List ways that healthcare providers can educate patients to prevent tick borne illnesses.

Abstract

Tick borne illnesses have the potential to dramatically impact public health in the Southeastern United States. Due to climate change and expansion of disease vectors, such as mice and white tail deer, the geographic range of common ticks have expanded, bringing them into closer contact with humans. Over the last 30 years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has taken a more active role tracking incidence of tick borne illnesses and state departments of health have collected epidemiological data which has led to a dramatic increase in the number of cases of tick borne illnesses that have been identified. This has led to the discovery of new diseases of unclear etiology. Disease surveillance has also shown that tick borne infections can range from self-limiting that resolves without treatment to severe illness that leads to multi-organ failure and death. There is continued debate about the long term effects of tick borne illness with arguments supporting persistent sequelae that lasts for years after initial infection. Diagnosis and treatment is difficult due to lack of availability of highly sensitive and specific tests which leads to misinterpretation of lab results and misdiagnosis. Healthcare providers play a pivotal role in the treatment of tick borne illnesses by understanding the disease risk, the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols.

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RISK FACTORS AND PREVENTION OF VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM (1.5 CEs)

Cindy Ward, DNP, RN-BC, CMSRN, ACNS-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Define venous thromboembolism.
  • Identify 3 risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a hospitalized patient.
  • Compare pharmacologic and mechanical VTE prophylaxis.
  • Recognize contraindications to pharmacologic and mechanical prophylaxis.

Abstract

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the leading cause of preventable hospital deaths in the United States. The true incidence of VTE is unknown; but it is estimated that 300,000 to 600,000 people are affected annually (Beckman, Hooper, Critchley & Ortel, 2010; Office of the Surgeon General, 2008). Is it estimated that 50 – 75% of hospital-acquired VTE would be potentially preventable if the patient received appropriate prophylaxis (Maynard & Stein, 2008). Individuals with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) who are untreated have a 37% incidence of a pulmonary embolus (PE) that is fatal (Stein & Mata, 2010). As many as 1 in 20 hospitalized patients will suffer a fatal PE if they have not received adequate VTE prophylaxis. For 25% of individuals with a PE, the first symptom is sudden death (Beckman et al., 2010; Cardiovascular Disease Educational and Research Trust (UK), European Venous Forum, North American Thrombosis Forum, International Union of Angiology & Union Internationale du Phlebologie, 2013; Heit, 2005).

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HEALTH LITERACY: HELPING YOUR PATIENT TO UNDERSTAND (3 CEs)

Erin G. Cruise, PhD, RN, NCSN

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Explain the implications of low health literacy for individuals and society.
  • Describe the skills associated with each level of literacy.
  • Discuss adverse outcomes related to low health literacy.
  • Identify clues to low health literacy that may be observed while interacting with patients.
  • Create an environment that is shame free and accommodating for those with low health literacy.
  • Assess written health information for reading level.
  • Design health information appropriate for the general public, including those with low literacy levels.
  • Effectively teach health information to low level readers.
  • Assess understanding of health information with low level readers.

Abstract

Navigating the modern health care system can be extremely complicated, requiring skills in writing, reading, comprehension, problem solving, and math. Health literacy is defined as the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information. Patients must utilize these skills when making health care decisions, following provider instructions, and managing treatments and medications. Nearly half of all Americans have limited literacy which impairs their ability to obtain or properly manage health care. Health care providers, including nurses, have the professional and ethical responsibility to ensure that patients are able to access and effectively utilize the health services we deliver. This module will provide information on how nurses can recognize literacy challenges among their patients. Nurses will be introduced to formulas for assessing literacy levels of individuals and approaches to making written materials more readable for those with low literacy. Methods for teaching and assessing patient understanding of health information will also be explored.

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PRAYER: AN INTERVENTION STRATEGY (1.5 CEs)

Judith Cox, DNP FNP, BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Discover the use of prayer as a complementary therapy in patient care.
  • Recall the types of prayer.
  • Analyze studies that have been conducted to determine the effects of prayer.
  • Facilitate the use of a spiritual assessment tool in practice.
  • Integrate the belief of prayer for patients according to their individual differences.
  • Respond to unexpected experiences in the care of patients with the use of prayer.
  • Identify gaps in research on prayer and the implications for future research.

Abstract

Controversy exists regarding the use of prayer in the healthcare setting.  Krucoff, a cardiovascular specialist at Duke University School of Medicine, stated that National Institute of Health (NIH) refused to review any study with the word “prayer” in it during the late 1990s (Davis and Smith, 2004).  However, Larson (2011) stated that research on the power of prayer has nearly doubled in the last 10 years.  This continuing education module has been developed to review research that has investigated prayer as a complementary therapy to traditional modalities.  The result is an awareness of the value of prayer to the patient during illness and recovery. 

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DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR VAGINITIS (1 CE)

Elizabeth Armstrong, DNP, MSN, FNP-C

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the pathophysiology of vaginitis.
  • Describe the presentation of vaginitis and the specific symptomatology for each type.
  • Identify the different types of vaginitis.
  • Differentiate between the different diagnostic tools for vaginitis.
  • Identify appropriate medication management for vaginitis.
  • Describe complementary and alternative therapies for vaginitis.
  • Identify barriers in diagnosing vaginitis.

Abstract

Vaginitis is a common problem among women of all ages and is one of the most frequent causes of gynecologic office visits (Lipsky, Waters, and Sharp, 2000) as well as primary care visits (Egan and Lipsky, 2000). Defined as vulvuvaginal symptoms including itching, burning, irritation, odor, and abnormal discharge and caused by either infection, inflammation, or changes in the normal vaginal flora. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and atrophic vaginitis. Many women continue to be undiagnosed or wrongly diagnosed which can result in ongoing discomfort, sexual dysfunction, impaired self-image, and interference with their daily routine (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), 2013). The purpose of this module is to discuss the pathophysiology, symptoms, and therapeutic and pharmacological interventions for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice with female clients.

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OPIOID PRESCRIBING: UNDERSTANDING THE CDC GUIDELINES (1.5 CEs)

Sabrina Johnson, MSN, FNP-BC, RN-BC

Objectives

Upon completion of this CE learning module, participants will be able to:

  • Explain the use of a risk assessment tool.
  • Understand the use of the Prescription Monitoring Program.
  • Understand when to use an opioid agreement and its purpose.
  • Explain when to use short-acting versus long-acting opioids.
  • Explain when to refer to the pain specialist.
  • Verbalize when to discontinue opioids.

Abstract

On March 18, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued new guidelines for prescribers wishing to write opioid prescription for patients experiencing pain.  These guidelines are to be utilized as a tool to aid prescribers while helping to fight the United States uphill battle against prescription drug abuse.  Over 18,000 deaths in 2014 were directly linked to prescription drug abuse ("Drug Poisoning Fact Sheet," 2016).  In the last year, more than 26% of those who initiated abusing drugs started with prescription medications, 17% of which were opiates ("Summary of Drug Use," 2013).  Because this abuse has gotten so out of control, the CDC felt compelled to provide safer and more effective treatment recommendations and attempt to reduce the occurrence of opioid use disorder and overdose (CDC Guidelines, 2016).  The purpose of this continuing education module is to assist clinicians to identify and use the new guidelines and apply them in clinical practice.

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