Virginia Police Legal Bulletin
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Vol. 1, No. 1 | July 2006
2006 Virginia Legislative Summary
by Dana Schrad
VACP Executive Director
LAW ENFORCEMENT RETIREMENT/BENEFITS
- HB 37/CHAPTER 388: Retirement benefits; local emergency medical technicians. Adds local emergency medical technicians to the list of local employees for whom localities may provide retirement benefits equivalent to those provided to State Police officers.
- HB 59/CHAPTER 622: Health insurance credits for retired state employees. Increases the monthly cap for health insurance credits provided to retired state employees by eliminating the cap on the number of years of service used to compute the credit.
- HB 1418/CHAPTER 878: Line of Duty Act; payment of benefits. Increases from $75,000 to $100,000 the amount for which a beneficiary of a deceased person whose death occurred while in the line of duty as the direct or proximate result of the performance of his duty is eligible to receive.
- SB 515/CHAPTER 824: Line of Duty Act; disabled state employees. Extends the Act's benefits to any state public safety employee whose disability occurred on or after January 1, 1966.
- HB 369/SB 393/Governor’s Amendments to Budget: Bills introduced by Delegate Carrico and Senator Stolle were not acted on by the House Appropriations Committee, effectively killing the bills. Governor Kaine included the retirement benefits language in his budget, but the amendments were rejected by the House of Delegates. The language would have raised the SPORS multiplier from 1.7 to 2.0 percent; would have put all deputy sheriffs into LEORS; and would have placed permissive language into LEORS for localities to raise the multiplier from 1.7 to 2.0 percent. The current VALORS multiplier is 2.0 percent, but VALORS was not addressed in the legislation. Also, the law enforcement supplement was not changed under this legislation. We expect another effort for law enforcement retirement benefits legislation in 2007. FAILED.
- Criminal justice training academies: As passed in HB 5002/Chapter 3 - The Board of Criminal Justice Services, consistent with § 9.1-102, Code of Virginia, and § 6VAC-20-20-61 of the Administrative Code, shall not approve or provide funding for the establishment of any new criminal justice training academy from July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007.
- 599 Aid to Localities with Police Departments: As passed in HB 5002/Chapter 3
- C. It is the intent of the General Assembly that state funding provided to localities operating police departments be used to fund local public safety services. Funds provided in this item shall not be used to supplant the funding provided by localities for public safety services.
- D. Out of this appropriation, an additional $3,460,129 the first year from the general fund is provided for local law enforcement agencies which are eligible to receive financial assistance under Title 9.1, Chapter 1, Article 8, Code of Virginia. The Department shall distribute this additional amount using a methodology based on the incidence of violent crimes as reported to the Virginia Department of State Police. It is the intent of the General Assembly that these additional funds be allocated only to those local law enforcement agencies that would otherwise lose funding as a result of updated input data in the current House Bill 599 formula, and that any funding received by these local law enforcement agencies through this additional appropriation be used entirely for local law enforcement activities that respond to or reduce the incidence of violent crime. Prior to the distribution of these additional funds, the Secretary of Public Safety shall provide the Chairmen of the House Appropriations and Senate Finance Committees with a report on the proposed distribution methodology and the amount proposed for each eligible law enforcement agency.
- E. The Secretaries of Public Safety and Finance shall review the current methodology for the distribution of state aid to localities with police departments (HB 599 of 1979) to determine whether or not the enabling legislation and funding formula warrant modification. Copies of this review shall be provided to the Chairmen of the House Appropriations and Senate Finance Committees by October 16, 2006.
- F. Effective July 1, 2007, the director of the Department of Criminal Justice Services is authorized to withhold reimbursements due a locality under Title 9.1, Chapter 1, Article 8, Code of Virginia, upon notification from the Superintendent of State Police that there is reason to believe that crime data reported by the locality to the Department of State Police in accordance with § 52-28, Code of Virginia, is missing, incomplete or incorrect. Upon subsequent notification by the superintendent that the data is accurate, the director shall make reimbursement of withheld funding due the locality when such corrections are made within the same fiscal year that funds have been withheld.
- HB 83/SB 27: Virginia Public Building Authority; financing for the State Agency Radio System. Authorizes the Virginia Public Building Authority to issue bonds in an amount not to exceed $201,900,000 to pay the costs of the State Agency Radio System (Phase II) for the Department of State Police.
- HB 255: Line of Duty Act; mandatory training. Requires the Secretary of Public Safety to develop training guidelines to be distributed to agencies and localities with employees covered by the Line of Duty Act. Each agency or locality is required to provide training concerning the Act to its eligible law-enforcement and public safety officers. The training will not count towards in-service credit requirements for law-enforcement officers.
- SB 129/HB 692: Juvenile gang affiliations; release of information. Provides that the Department of Corrections or locally operated court service unit may release any information relating to gang-related activity, obtained from an investigation of a juvenile affiliated with a criminal street gang to any State Police, local police department, or sheriff's office. The exchange of information shall be for the purpose of an investigation into criminal street gang activity.
- SB 561: Gang information; juvenile records. Requires the Departments of Corrections and Juvenile Justice to collect information on individuals identified as criminal gang members and transmit it to the Commonwealth's Attorneys' Services Council. The Council will disseminate the information to attorneys for the Commonwealth. The bill also specifies that law-enforcement agencies, school administrations and probation offices are included as entities that may examine certain juvenile records held by the Department of Juvenile Justice if there is a court order determining that they have a legitimate interest. The bill also provides that the information may be provided to a criminal justice agency that is conducting research. This bill is identical to HB 847. This bill incorporates SB 151 and SB 351.
- HB 847: Gang information; juvenile records. Requires the Departments of Corrections and Juvenile Justice to collect information on individuals identified as gang members and transmit it to the Commonwealth's Attorneys' Services Council. The Council will disseminate the information to attorneys for the Commonwealth. The bill also specifies that law-enforcement agencies, school administrations and probation offices are included as entities that may examine certain juvenile records held by the Department of Juvenile Justice if there is a court order determining that they have a legitimate interest. The bill also says that the court order may be granted if the person, agency, or institution has a legitimate interest in the juvenile. Under current law the interest is limited to the case or in the work of the court. In addition, the Department of Juvenile Justice will be allowed to release the social reports and records of a child to certain law enforcement employees for the purpose of investigating criminal street gang activity. This bill is identical to SB 561.
- HB 56: Mandatory reporting of child abuse and neglect. Requires any person who voluntarily undergoes training in recognition of child abuse to report suspected child abuse or neglect to a local department of social services or the Department of Social Services’ toll-free child abuse and neglect hotline.
- HB 984 CHAPTER 857: Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry; penalties. Makes numerous changes to Registry provisions. First offense child pornography possession and burglary with the intent to commit certain felony sex offenses will be new Registry offenses if committed after July 1, 2006. Criminal homicide in conjunction with child abuse will be a registrable offense. The sex offender website will include persons convicted of all registrable sex offenses not just persons convicted of violent sex offenses as under current law. The Department of Criminal Justice Services is required to advise and initiate training standards for criminal justice agencies and state, local and regional employees who work with the Registry.
- HB 1333 CHAPTER 931: Sex Offender Registry; penalties. Adds first offense child pornography possession and burglary with the intent to commit certain felony sex offenses as new Registry offenses if committed after July 1, 2006. Criminal homicide in conjunction with contributing to the delinquency of a child or child abuse is also added as a new Registry offense. The bill modifies the registration of a person convicted of murdering a child so that registration will be required if the victim is under 15 years of age and if the minor victim is 15 or older and the murder is related to a registrable sex offense. The bill adds burglary with the intent to commit certain felony sex offenses to the list of offenses, if committed twice, that are deemed sexually violent offenses. The bill places murder on an equal footing with sexually violent offenses for purposes of registration. Persons convicted of sex offenses in a foreign country will be required to register. The bill makes a second or subsequent conviction for failing to register as a sex offender a Class 6 felony and a second or subsequent conviction of failing to register as a violent sex offender a Class 5 felony.
- SB 559 CHAPTER 914: Sex offenders; registration, civil commitment and mandatory minimums; penalties. Amends provisions related to the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry and the civil commitment of sexually violent predators and increases penalties for certain sex crimes. (Lengthy requirements)
- HB 1036/SB 560: Campus safety. Requires the Department of Criminal Justice Services to develop training standards for campus security officers and to provide technical support and assistance to campus police departments and campus security departments. The bill has an effective date of July 1, 2007. This bill incorporates House Bill 154.
- SB 173: Virginia Port Authority police. Allows the Authority to enter into agreements with private terminal operators to permit special police officers to provide and enforce safety and security on the operator's property.
- HB 1345: Process for issuance of search and arrest warrants. Provides that where an appearance is required or permitted, and that appearance is made by two-way electronic video and audio communication, documents may be transmitted by facsimile between the magistrate, intake officer, or judge, and the person appearing before such magistrate, intake officer, or judge. Additionally, when seeking a search warrant, the person seeking the search warrant may file the required affidavit by electronically transmitted facsimile process.
- HB 1356: Mutual aid agreements. Allows all sheriffs to enter into mutual aid agreements. Current provisions apply only to sheriffs with primary law-enforcement authority. This bill incorporates HB 1189.
- HB 1431: Procedure upon arrest without warrant. Provides that a special conservator of the peace has the authority to affect arrests and to use up to the same amount of force as would be allowed to a law-enforcement officer when making a lawful arrest.
- HB 1509: Reporting identity theft to law-enforcement agencies. Provides that a consumer may report a case of identity theft to the law-enforcement agency where he resides. The bill also provides that upon receipt of a court order and upon request by such person, the Office of the Attorney General, in cooperation with the State Police, shall issue an "Identity Theft Passport" stating that such an order has been submitted.
- HB 1577: Concealed handgun permits. Eliminates the ability of a locality to require an applicant for a concealed handgun permit to submit fingerprints as part of the renewal of an existing permit. The bill modifies the current law provision that a court may disqualify an applicant from receiving a concealed handgun permit based upon specific acts that indicate that the applicant would use a weapon unlawfully or negligently by adding a disqualifying conviction and allowing the personal knowledge of a deputy sheriff, police officer or assistant Commonwealth's Attorney to be the basis for the specific acts alleged by the sheriff, chief of police, or Commonwealth's Attorney.
- SB 717: Purchase of service handguns; retired state law-enforcement officers. Allows any state-level law-enforcement officer who retires after 20 years of state service to purchase his service handgun for $1, even if a portion of his service was with another state agency.
- HB 1258: Tow trucks; towing and recovery operators; local-option regulations; regulation by Board for Towing and Recovery Operators; civil penalty. Allows a mechanic's lien for "towing, storage, and recovery" in addition to the present "keeping, supporting, and care"; increases the present three-day limit for garage keepers to obtain vehicle data from the DMV and provides written notice to the owner of the stored vehicle to a seven-day limit; raises the so-called "junk car" threshold from the present $5,000 to $7,500; and increases from $25 per day to $50 per day the amount owed for storage if a vehicle is towed, unclaimed, and sold. Local towing and advisory boards would be required to consist of an equal number of representatives of local law-enforcement agencies and representatives of towing and recovery operators, plus one "civilian" and would have to meet at least once per year at the call of the chairman, who is to be chosen annually by a majority vote of the board. Finally the bill establishes a new Board for Towing and Recovery Operators to license and regulate the towing and recovery industry and tow truck drivers.
- HB 1276: Investigators with Office of the Attorney General and special agents of Alcoholic Beverage Control Board; powers to enforce certain tobacco laws. Authorizes investigators with the Office of the Attorney General to seize cigarettes which are unlawfully sold, possessed, distributed, transported, imported, or otherwise held and to accompany and participate with special agents of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Board or other law-enforcement officials engaging in an enforcement action under § 3.1-336.6 or 58.1-1037
- SB 395: Enhanced Public Safety Telephone Services Act. Expands the powers and duties of the Wireless E-911 Services Board to include developing a statewide enhanced 9-1-1 plan for voice-over-Internet service and future communications technologies accessing E-911 for emergency purposes. The formula for distribution of money in the Wireless E-911 fund is revised to provide that 60% will be provided to public safety answering points (PSAPs), 30% will be provided for payment of Wireless E-911 CMRS costs, and the remaining 10% will be provided for needs-based grants to be defined by the Board for PSAPs. The bill also increases the size of the Board from 14 to 15 members.
- SB 552: Destruction of human biological evidence; penalty. Makes it a Class 6 felony for a clerk of court or other public official to willfully violate a court order entered pursuant to § 19.2-270.4:1, relating to storage, preservation and retention of human biological evidence in a felony case.
- HB 1030: Field test for marijuana evidence at trial. Provides that in any trial for marijuana possession, any law-enforcement officer shall be permitted to testify as to the results of any field test approved by the Department of Forensic Science, regarding whether or not any plant material, the identity of which is at issue, is marijuana.
The bill also provides an opportunity for defense counsel to require full laboratory analysis. The Department of Forensic Science is distributing field tests to law enforcement agencies.
- HB 157: Virginia Biased-Based Policing and Traffic Statistics Reporting Act. Requires the Department of State Police to develop a statewide database for collecting, correlating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting data and information generated related to certain traffic stops. FAILED, but it is expected to be reintroduced in 2007.
- HB 546: Concealed handgun permits; retired law-enforcement officers. Provides an appeal process for retired local law-enforcement officials denied written proof of consultation to carry a concealed handgun. If the chief law-enforcement officer denies the proof to the retired officer, the retired officer may appeal to the attorney for the Commonwealth. FAILED.
- HB 899: Temporary detention process; transportation by sheriffs. Specifies that temporary detention orders shall require the sheriff of the appropriate jurisdiction to execute the order and transport the person subject to the order. However, the order may request the assistance of other law-enforcement agencies if the sheriff is unable to execute the order or provide transportation. FAILED.
- HB 1159: High-speed pursuit policy. Provides that on and after January 1, 2007, every law-enforcement agency in the Commonwealth that is or may be engaged in emergency response and vehicle pursuits shall adopt a written policy that sets forth the manner in which such operations shall be conducted. FAILED – but this bill could return in 2007. Agencies are recommended to have written policies in place.
- HB 1181: Department of Criminal Justice Services; canine unit certification. Requires the Department of Criminal Justice Services to certify all canine units used by law-enforcement agencies in the Commonwealth. The bill sets forth procedures for certifying canine units for narcotics detection, explosives detection, and patrol. FAILED – an informal study may be conducted in advance of this bill being reintroduced in 2007.
- HB 1337: Civil immunity; retired law-enforcement officer. States that a retired law enforcement officer, not acting in the scope of his employment, has civil immunity for actions he may take in the response to an emergency or to thwart the commission of a crime. FAILED.
CRIMES AND OFFENSES
- HB 25: False identification to law-enforcement officer; penalty. Provides that any person who falsely identifies himself to a law-enforcement officer with the intent to deceive the law-enforcement officer as to his real identity after having been lawfully detained and being requested to identify himself, is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.
- HB 58: Education; Internet safety instruction. Adds to the acceptable Internet use policies developed by the division superintendents a requirement that such policies include a component on Internet safety for students that is integrated in a division's instructional program. The measure contains an enactment clause providing that within 45 days of the enactment of the act, the Superintendent of Public Instruction must issue a superintendent's memorandum advising school divisions of the provisions in the act and encourage cooperation with local law enforcement agencies in its implementation.
- HB 588: Crimes; brandishing a machete; penalty. Makes it illegal to brandish a machete, with a 12 inch blade or longer, with intent to intimidate, and includes such offense as one of the predicate criminal acts that defines street gang activity. The penalty for a violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor, or if the violation occurs on or within 1,000 feet of any public, private, or religious school, a Class 6 felony. The bill makes an exception for excusable or justifiable self-defense. This bill is identical to SB 183.
- HB 372: Protests at funerals. Punishes the disruption of a funeral or memorial service as disorderly conduct, a Class 1 misdemeanor.
- SB 200/HB 340: Control of dangerous and vicious dogs; registry; penalty. Requires the control of dangerous dogs within a statewide mandated framework. The bill imposes criminal penalties ranging from a Class 2 misdemeanor to a Class 6 felony for violations that result in injury to a person or death to a cat or dog. The bill expands the authority to petition a court to find a dog dangerous to any law-enforcement officer and makes that petition mandatory. A Virginia Dangerous Dog Registry is created to be maintained by the State Veterinarian; any change in the status of a dangerous dog is to be promptly submitted in writing. Surrender of a dog that is subject of a pending action to animal control shall not be in lieu of prosecution. The bill also (i) narrows the definition of "dangerous dogs" to include dogs that inflict injury to another cat or dog requiring the animal to be euthanized while also broadening safe harbor provisions; (ii) requires that a dog that has been found to be dangerous or vicious shall be spayed or neutered; and (iii) requires liability insurance in the amount of $100,000 to be purchased by the owner of a dangerous dog, or in lieu of the insurance policy the owner may obtain a surety bond. This bill is identical to HB 340 and HB 1039.
- HB 1013: False identification cards used for establishing Virginia residency; penalty. Punishes the possession, manufacture, etc. of false identification cards with the intent to use same as evidence of legal presence in the United States or as evidence of Virginia residency as a Class 6 felony. Raises the penalty for possession without such intent from a Class 2 to a Class 1 misdemeanor.
- HB 1040: Sale of pseudoephedrine by pharmacist; limits on purchase of pseudoephedrine; penalty. Provides that no more than 3.6 grams of either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine may be sold daily to an individual in a retail sale and that retail personnel shall be instructed in special procedures to be used in the sale of products containing such drugs. Effective September 30, 2006, when a substance containing such drugs is provided or sold it shall be displayed behind a sales counter or in a locked case and the purchaser must present a photo ID. If more than one package is purchased, the purchaser must sign a log maintained by the seller. The penalty for violation of these provisions is a Class 1 misdemeanor. This bill is identical to SB 146.
- SB 100: Alcoholic beverage control; alcohol vaporizing devices prohibited; penalty. Prohibits any person from purchasing, offering for sale, selling or using or offering for use any vaporized form of an alcoholic beverage produced by an alcohol vaporizing device, including licensees of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Any person convicted of a violation of this section shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The bill defines alcohol vaporizing device as any device, machine, or process that mixes any alcoholic beverages with pure oxygen or other gas to produce a vaporized product for the purpose of consumption by inhalation.
- HB 1208: Alcohol beverage control; home exemption. Requires a guest to be 21 years of age or older or to be accompanied by his parent, guardian, or spouse in order to be served alcohol in the home of another. This bill is identical to SB 396.
- SB 291: Human trafficking; extortion; penalty. Creates a Class 5 felony for extorting money, property or other pecuniary benefit by threatening to report a person as being illegally present in the United States. This bill incorporates SB 505.
- SB 378: Drive off from retail motor fuel establishment; court costs. Requires the payment of court costs for driving off and not paying for gasoline at a retail gas station. The penalty for violation is a civil penalty. Prosecution for larceny is not precluded. This is a recommendation of the Committee on District Courts.
- HB 487: Department of State Police; immigration laws. States that it is the responsibility of the Governor to enter into an agreement with federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement that would allow the Department of State Police to enforce civil immigration laws. FAILED.
TRAFFIC SAFETY ENFORCEMENT
- HB106: Red or red and white warning lights on certain vehicles. Allows security vehicles of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to be equipped with red or red and white warning lights.
- HB 823: Maximum speed limit signs. Authorizes maximum speed limit signs to be placed in certain residence districts in towns without the approval of the county in which the town is located.
- HB 827: License plates. Prohibits use of any bracket, holder, mounting, or frame that obscures the alpha-numeric license number, the name or abbreviated name of the state in which the vehicle is registered, or any decal, stamp, or other device indicating the month or year in which the vehicle's registration expires.
- HB 366: Mopeds, motorized scooters and skateboards. Allows localities to adopt ordinances regulating noise from mopeds and motorized scooters and skateboards. The bill also revises the definitions of "electric power-assisted bicycle," "moped," and “motorcycle," and defines "motorized skateboard or scooter" and "motor-driven cycle" and limits where motorized skateboards and scooters and motor-driven cycles may lawfully be operated.
- SB 712: Mopeds, motorized scooters and skateboards, and motor-driven cycles. Regulates the operation of "motorized skateboards and scooters," bans over-the-road operation of "motor-driven cycles," and differentiates these vehicles from motorcycles and mopeds.
- HB 1042: Causing the death of another while engaging in a vehicle race; penalty. Provides that if a person causes the death of another person while engaging in a vehicle race in a manner so gross, wanton and culpable as to show a reckless disregard for human life, he is guilty of a felony punishable by a term of confinement of not less than one nor more than 20 years, one year of which is a mandatory minimum term of confinement.
- HB 1047: Traffic lights. Allows police to use wireless telecommunications devices in enforcement of traffic light signals.
- HB 1163: Unlawful sale of driver's licenses. Makes it a Class 1 misdemeanor for any person or entity other than the Department of Motor Vehicles to sell, give, or distribute, or attempt to sell, give, or distribute any document purporting to be a driver's license.
- HB 1312: Laser speed determination devices. Eliminates the requirement that law-enforcement officers permit motorists to observe the reading on the device.
- HB 1546: Reckless driving. Defines reckless driving as (i) driving a motor vehicle at a speed of 20 miles per hour or more in excess of the maximum speed limit or (ii) driving in excess of 80 miles per hour regardless of the maximum speed limit.
- SB 90: Recording devices in motor vehicles; ownership of recorded data; insurance policies; disclosure. Defines the vehicle owner as the owner of any data recorded on a recording device installed in a motor vehicle. Recorded data may only be accessed with the vehicle owner's consent, except under the following circumstances: (i) the vehicle owner contracts with a third party subscription service that requires access to the recorded data; (ii) a licensed new motor vehicle dealer or a technician or mechanic at a motor vehicle repair or servicing facility requires access to carry out normal and ordinary diagnostics, servicing, or repair duties; (iii) the recorded data is accessed by an emergency response provider in performing his duties; (iv) upon authority of a court of competent jurisdiction; or (v) the recorded data is accessed by law enforcement in the course of an investigation where there is probable cause to believe the recording device contains evidence relating to a violation of the laws of the Commonwealth or the United States and such access is otherwise constitutionally permissible.
- SB 191: All-terrain vehicles and off-road motorcycles. Requires non-dealer owners of all-terrain vehicles and off-road motorcycles powered by gasoline or diesel engines displacing more than 50 cubic centimeters and purchased as new on or after July 1, 2006, to title their vehicles with DMV.
- Photo-Red Monitoring Authority (HB 109, HB 718, HB 961, SB 453): several bills were introduced to reinstate the authority to use photo-red technology to address red light running violations, all FAILED.
- HB 1456: Display of license plates. Removes the requirement of the license plate on the front of a motor vehicle. FAILED.
- HB 1209: Safety belt systems; penalty. Makes safety belt violations primary offenses.FAILED.
- HB 1400 Motorcycles; wearing of helmets; penalty. Limits the application of the "motor cycle helmet law" to operators and passengers who are less than 21 years old. FAILED in House on 42-57 votes.
- HB 1120: Radar detectors. Repeals the prohibition on use of radar detectors. FAILED.
LEGISLATION CARRIED OVER TO 2007 GENERAL ASSEMBLY SESSION
- HB 704: County ordinances; discharge of firearms and hunting. Provides that a county may prohibit by ordinance hunting, the discharge of firearms, and the discharge of arrows from bows within one-half mile of a subdivision or in an area so heavily populated as to make hunting dangerous. However, no ordinance regulating the discharge of firearms or bows may be more restrictive than an ordinance concerning hunting. Any ordinance adopted after January 1, 1995 concerning the discharge of firearms or hunting that is more restrictive than the provisions of the act is invalid.
- HB 777/SB 697: Law-Enforcement Officers Procedural Guarantee Act. Makes several changes as to the process and procedures afforded to officers under the procedural guarantee act, clarifying several existing rights and setting forth specific procedures for the questioning of officers and the conduct of a disciplinary hearing. The VACP will conduct meetings in September with supporters of this legislation to discuss the merits of the bills.
- HB 1336: Law-enforcement officers; training related to sexual assault cases. Requires that officers receive training related to sexual assault and sets forth minimum guidelines for what such training must include.
- HB 1348: Virginia Search and Rescue Training and Response Program. Creates the Virginia Search and Rescue Training and Response Program within the Department of Emergency Management to coordinate search and rescue training and response in the Commonwealth.
- HB 1048: Illegal Immigrants; Document verification for employment. Requires employers to obtain employment eligibility verification documentation indicating that a prospective employee is legally eligible for employment in the United States. Violations involving the knowing employment of persons not legally eligible for employment in the United States, in addition to being Class 1 misdemeanors, are punishable by a fine of $10,000.
LEGISLATIVE STUDY RESOLUTIONS
- HJ 116: Animal control officers; study. Virginia State Crime Commission to study the need for regulation, training, funding of animal control officers.
- HJ 136: Study; juvenile justice; report. Directs the Virginia State Crime Commission to conduct a two-year study of Virginia's juvenile justice system. The study will focus on recidivism, disproportionate minority contact with the justice system, improving the quality of and access to legal counsel, accountability in the courts, and diversion.
- HJ 35: DUI Study by Crime Commission. Study; Crime Commission study of punishment for DUI; report. Directs the Virginia State Crime Commission to study the effectiveness of existing punishments for driving while intoxicated.