Biology 405

BIOL 405

Catalog Entry

Biology 405. Histology
Three hours lecture; three hours laboratory (4).

Prerequisite: BIOL 132:231:232 or BIOL 322.

An introduction to components, arrangements and adaptations of animal tissues with special emphasis on mammalian tissues and mammalian organ systems.


Detailed Description of Content of Course

I. Lecture

A. Introduction and Overview

1. Microscopy
2. How Tissues are Prepared
3. How to Interpret Sections

B. The Cell

1. Components of the Cell
2. The Cell Cycle

C. The Four Primary Tissues

1. Epithelium

a. Membranes
b. Simple Epithelium
c. Pseudostratified Epithelium
d. Stratified Epithelium
e. Endothelium and Mesothelium
f. Gland Epithelium

2. Connective Tissue

a. Connective Tissue Cells
b. Connective Tissue Fibers and Ground Substance
c. Mesenchyme
d. Mucoid
e. Areolar
f. Adipose
g. Reticular
h. Irregular Dense
i. Regular Dense
j. Hyaline Cartilage
k. Fibrous Cartilage
l. Elastic Cartilage
m. Bone
n. Blood

3. Muscle

a. Smooth Muscle
b. Striated Muscle
c. Cardiac Muscle

4. Nervous Tissue

a. Structure and Types of Neurons
b. Ganglia
c. Nerve Fibers
d. Peripheral Nerves
e. Auxiliary Tissues of the Nervous System
f. The Central Nervous System

D. Histology of the Organ Systems

1. The Circulatory System

a. Blood Vascular System
b. Lymph Vascular System

2. Lymphoid Organs

a. Lymph Nodes
b. Tonsils
c. Thymus
d. Spleen

3. The Skin and Its Appendages

a. Skin
b. Nails
c. Hair
d. Glands of the Skin

4. The Digestive Tract

Part I - The Oral Cavity

a. Lip
b. Cheek
c. Tongue
d. Taste Buds
e. Teeth
f. Major Salivary Glands

Part II - The Tubular - Digestive Tract

a. Layers of the digestive Tract
b. Esophagus
c. Stomach
d. Small Intestine
e. Large Intestine

Part III - The Major Digestive Glands

a. Pancreas
b. Liver
c. Gall Bladder

5. The Respiratory System

a. Nose
b. Larynx
c. Trachea
d. Lungs

6. The Urinary System

a. Kidney
b. Nephron
c. Excretory Passages

7. The Endocrine System

a. Hypophysis
b. Thyroid Gland
c. Parathyroid Gland
d. Suprarenal Gland
e. Paraganglia
f. Pineal Body

8. The Female Reproductive System

a. Ovary
b. Fallopian Tubes
c. Uterus
d. Vagina
e. External Genitalia
f. Mammary Gland

9. The Male Reproductive System

a. Testis
b. Male Genital Ducts
c. Auxiliary Genital Gland
d. Penis

10. Organs of Special Sense

a. Nerve Endings
b. Eye
c. Ear

II. Laboratory - Analysis of Prepared Slides to Complement Lecture Material

1. Review of basic cell structure and introduction to types and variations of tissue preparations.
2. Introduction to micro-techniques.
3. Study of basic epithelial types.
4. Study of connective tissue proper, including cartilage and bone.
5. Study of specialized connective tissue (Blood) and study of muscle tissues.
6. Study of nervous tissues.
7. Study of the integuments and study of the circulatory system.
8. Study of the lymphatic tissues and organs.
9. Study of the digestive tract - Part I- Lips, tongue, esophagus and stomach.
10. Study of the digestive tract - Part II - Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Large Intestine, Appendix.
11. Study of the respiratory system and the urinary system.
12. Study of the female reproductive system.
13. Study of the male reproductive system.
14. Study of the endocrine system.


Detailed Description of Conduct of Course

The lecture portion of the course may be conducted using a variety of techniques and aids in addition to the traditional lecture style of format. A variety of visual aids including slides, videos, movies, and computer generated graphics will be used to enhance the lectures. Class discussion will be encouraged. The laboratory experience will primarily be devoted to an examination and analysis of prepared sectioned tissue samples using compound light microscopy.


Goals and Objectives

Having completed this course the student will be able to recognize, using light microscopy, the primary mammalian tissue types, as well as the histology of the mammalian organ systems, in normal, non-pathological condition. The student will be able to discuss the structure - functional relationships.

The student will have gained insights that should allow them to make predictions about function based on structure even when they have not previously seen the tissue. The student will have gained the knowledge of the process of tissue preparation for light microscopy.


Assessment Measures

Students will be tested on their knowledge of Histology through a variety of tests and quizzes that include essays, definitions, matching, multiple choice, drawings, and identification of microscopic sections and whole mounts. Students may also be evaluated on their contributions to discussions.


Other Course Information



Review and Approval

October, 2007