Safety Guidelines for Employees

Aerial Lifts (Bucket Trucks)

1. An aerial lift is any vehicle-mounted device that is used to position personnel.
2. Any modification to an aerial lift must be approved by the manufacturer in writing.
3. Test lift controls daily before use to determine that the controls are in safe working conditions.
4. Only trained personnel shall operate an aerial lift.
5. Tying off to an adjacent structure while working from an aerial lift is not allowed.
6. Do not sit or climb on the edge of the bucket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.
7. Wear a safety harness with the lanyard attached to the boom when working from an aerial lift. Body belts are not allowed.
8. Do not exceed boom and basket load limits.
9. Set the brakes and position outriggers, if used, on pads on a solid surface. Use wheel chocks on an incline.
10. Do not move the lift truck when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the bucket.
11. Do not wear climbers while performing work from an aerial lift.
12. The insulated portion of an aerial lift must not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.
13. Before moving an aerial lift for travel inspect the boom to ensure that it is properly cradled and out riggers are in the stowed position.
14. Ensure that aerial lifts have both upper and lower platform controls. Upper controls must be in or beside the platform, within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls must override the upper controls. Controls must be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls must not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in an emergency.
15. Electrical tests must comply with ANSI A92.2-1969, Sect. 5. Equivalent tests may be used if approved by the manufacturer.
16. All critical hydraulic and pneumatic components shall comply with ANSI A92.2-1969, Sect 4.9. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom.
17. Maintain a distance of 10 feet from energized overhead lines if the aerial lift is not insulated. If the voltage is higher than 50 kV, increase the clearance to 4 inches for every 10kv over that voltage. The clearance may be reduced to 4 feet if the vehicle is in transit with its structure lowered.
18. If an aerial lift is insulated for the voltage involved, and the work is performed by a qualified person, the clearance between the uninsulated portion of the lift and the power line may be reduced to the distance given below:

Voltage Distance
less than 300 V avoid contact
300 V-750 V 1 ft
750 V-2 kV 1.5 ft
2 kV-15 kV 2.0 ft
15 kV-37 kV 3.0 ft
37 kV-87.5 kV 3.5 ft
87.5 kV-121 kV 4.0 ft
121 kV-140 kV 4.5 ft

19. Qualified persons are those who have been trained to work safely on energized circuits and are familiar with precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools. Unqualified persons are those with little or no such training
20. If you are standing on the ground, do not contact the vehicle unless you are using protective equipment rated for the voltage or the equipment cannot come closer to an energized line than permitted in number 17.
21. If the aerial lift is intentionally grounded, do not stand near the grounding point if it is possible for the equipment to contact an energized line.

Bloodborne Pathogens

Learn more about Bloodborne Pathogen programs.

1.0 Training

  1. Employees occupationally exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials must receive training in OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogen Standard, bloodborne pathogens, and methods to reduce exposure. Please call the Safety Office at 831-7790 to schedule training.

2.0 University Precautions

  1. Observe universal precautions when performing any task which may result in occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. The concept of universal precautions assumes that all patients are infectious for bloodborne pathogens such as HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and Hepatitis B. Universal precautions require the use of appropriate barriers, such as gloves, to prevent contact with bloodborne pathogens.

3.0 Body Fluids

  1. The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard is designed to protect employees from blood, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva in dental procedures, cerebrospinal, synovial, pleural, pericardial, peritoneal, and amniotic fluids; any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in which it is difficult to distinguish between types. The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard does not apply to urine, feces, sweat, tears, vomitus, or saliva, unless visible blood is present

4.0 Personal Protective Equipment

  1. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as gloves, eye protection, gowns, masks, and mouthpieces to prevent exposure to blood and other potentially infective body fluids. The university will supply, repair, launder, replace, and dispose of protective equipment at no cost to employees.
  2. Use disposable (single use) vinyl, latex or nitrile gloves when hand contact with potentially infectious body fluids is possible. Replace gloves as soon as feasible when contaminated, torn, or punctured. Change gloves between patient contact. Do not wash or decontaminate gloves for re-use. Wash hands immediately after removing gloves. If water is not available, use an antiseptic towelette.
  3. Wear rubber utility gloves when cleaning surfaces contaminated with blood and other potentially infectious body fluids. Utility gloves may be washed and disinfected for re-use but must be discarded if punctured or torn.
  4. If exposure to splashes or sprays of potentially infectious materials is possible, wear protective eyewear, masks, gowns, head cover, and booties as necessary. Eye protection must have solid side shields. Gowns must be impervious to soak through. This equipment is not required for routine care. When performing rescue breathing or CPR, use a mouthpiece or face shield.

5.0 Hygiene

  1. Do not eat, drink, smoke, apply cosmetics, handle contact lenses, or store food or drinks in areas where exposure to bloodborne pathogens is possible. Never mouth pipet blood or other potentially infectious materials. Always wash hands after removing any personal protective equipment. Do not take protective equipment home.

6.0 Blood Spills

  1. Use the following procedures to clean up blood spills:
    1. Secure the area.
    2. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment depending on the extent of the spill; gloves must be worn as a minimum.
    3. Place towels over the spill to soak up gross quantities (do not pour disinfectant directly onto blood).
    4. Wash the area with soap and water.
    5. Complete the clean up with cloth or paper towels.
    6. Disinfect the area with an appropriate germicide such as a 1:10 dilution of bleach (1 cup bleach in 9 cups of water), or a hospital disinfectant labeled as tuberculocidal. Do not mix bleach with other cleaning or disinfecting agents.
    7. Place all contaminated materials in a plastic red bag, seal, and properly label with the Biohazard label.
    8. Dispose of the bag as infectious waste (do not throw in the regular trash).
    9. Cloth towels may be washed. Mops should be disinfected with bleach.
    10. Dispose of wash water in the sanitary sewer system. Wash blood on sidewalks or streets into a sewer or storm drain. Do not wash bleach into a storm drain.
    11. Wash hands after removing gloves.
  2. Handle contaminated laundry as little as possible. Wear gloves as a minimum. If gross contamination is present, wear a gown and eye protection also. Place contaminated clothing in a plastic bag, seal, and label with the Biohazard Label. Contaminated clothing should be laundered on-site by properly trained personnel or picked up by a commercial laundry service. Washing at a public Laundromat is allowed but not encouraged. Dry cleaning is acceptable. Contaminated laundry should not be taken home.

7.0 Infectious Waste

  1. Dispose of liquid waste in the sanitary sewer system. Waste materials that are supersaturated with blood or grossly caked with blood that could be easily released must be disposed of as infectious waste. Place these materials in a leakproof red plastic bag or a regular plastic bag labeled with the Biohazard label. Do not throw red plastic bags in the regular trash. Contact supervision or the Safety Office for proper disposal. Small quantities of items not supersaturated with blood or other potentially infectious fluids, such as Band-Aids, may be disposed of in the regular trash. Discarded feminine hygiene products are exempted from infectious waste regulations.
  2. Dispose of syringes, needles, scalpel blades, and other sharp items in a puncture resistant container labeled with the Biohazard label. Proper containers are available from the Safety Office. Do not use beverage containers, etc. Dispose as infectious regulated waste. Do not recap, bend, cut, break, or remove needles from syringes.

8.0 Hepatitus B Vaccine

  1. Employees occupationally exposed to blood should receive a vaccination for hepatitis B. The need for the vaccination will be determined by supervision and the Safety Manager. This vaccination is offered at no cost to employees. Employees may refuse the vaccination but can change their minds at a latter date. Employees who refuse must sign a declination form.
  2. The vaccine is given in Student Health and consists of three shots given over a six months period. Call Student Health at 831-5111 to schedule a time for the vaccine. You must receive training and be approved by the Safety Office before you can receive the vaccine.

9.0 Exposure Incident

  1. Personnel occupationally exposed to blood should report all exposure incidents to supervision. An exposure incident is a contaminated needle stick or cut, blood splash to eyes, mouth, nose, or to non-intact skin. A blood splash to intact skin is not an exposure incident. Employees will be given a confidential medical evaluation and follow up by a physician. Employees will be notified within 15 days of the results of the evaluation.

Permit-Required Confined Spaces

Learn more about the permit-required confined space program

1.0 Training

  1. Personnel involved in confined space work must be trained in hazard recognition, personal protective equipment, safety equipment, communications equipment, procedures for calling rescue services, and proper use of rescue equipment.
  2. Individuals who perform atmospheric testing will be trained by the Safety Office. Training will cover field checks, normal use, and specific limitations of the equipment.

2.0 Atmospheric Hazards

  1. Test the atmosphere in a permit-required confined space if the space contains a potential atmospheric hazard. Test for oxygen concentration, combustible gases, and known or suspected toxic substances immediately prior to entry.
  2. Atmosphere testing must be performed by a person qualified by the Safety Office. Record the results on the entry permit. Employees who enter the space may observe the monitoring and will be immediately provided with the results of the testing.
  3. If the atmosphere is safe and there is no potential for a hazardous atmosphere to develop, workers may enter the space without retrieval equipment or forced mechanical ventilation, provided all other hazards (e.g., electrical, mechanical) have been controlled.
  4. If the permit space contains an actual or potential hazardous atmosphere that can be controlled by continuous forced air ventilation, workers may enter the space without retrieval equipment. Flammable and toxic atmospheres must be less than 50% of a "hazardous atmosphere" to qualify as an atmosphere-controlled space. The potential for a hazardous atmosphere will be determined by supervision in consultation with the Safety Office. Repeat monitoring at least hourly or more often depending on the possibility of changing conditions.
  5. Any use of chemicals, welding, cutting, or soldering in a permit space has the potential to create a hazardous atmosphere and requires the use of mechanical ventilation. Any such use must be approved by supervision and the Safety Manager.
  6. Notify the Safety Office immediately if atmospheric conditions are hazardous. Entry is prohibited until conditions are brought into acceptable limits. Retrieval equipment, appropriate personal protective equipment, and/or mechanical ventilation are required if the atmosphere remains hazardous or it is likely to return. Monitor continuously if the potential for a hazardous atmosphere is likely.
  7. Record monitoring results on the entry permit every hour. Exit the space immediately if the monitor alarms.

3.0 Physical Hazards

  1. If the space poses a serious safety hazard, the hazard must be controlled or eliminated prior to entry.
  2. Wear full retrieval equipment and appropriate personal protective equipment when entering a permit space containing an uncontrolled serious safety hazard must
  3. De-energize and tag and lockout exposed energized electrical equipment. Mechanical sources in a confined space that could be hazardous must be tagged and locked out or guarded.
  4. Disconnect belt and chain drives and mechanical linkages on shaft-driven equipment where possible. Secure mechanical moving parts within a confined space with chains, chocks, blocks, or other devices.

4.0 Entry Permits

  1. An entry permit must be prepared by the entry supervisor prior to entry into a permit-required confined space.
  2. Ensure that the permit specifies the location, type of work, type of space, personal protective measures, authorized entrants, monitoring equipment and calibration date, hazards of the permit space, atmosphere testing, and control measures.
  3. Sign and date the permit prior to allowing entry and ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the terms on the permit. The permit is limited to 12 hours. Terminate the permit  if a potential hazardous situation occurs which exceeds the conditions authorized on the permit.
  4. Keep the permit outside the confined space for inspection by all workers.
  5. Turn the entry permits into the Safety Office after the work is completed.

5.0 Safety Equipment

  1. Follow all safety rules during entry. Do not use aluminum ladders when working around electrical equipment. Ensure that lighting is adequate.
  2. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when entering the permit space.
  3. Electrical equipment used in the confined space must be appropriate for the hazard. Inspect electrical cords, tools, and equipment for defects prior to use in a confined space. Connect all electrical equipment to a ground fault circuit interrupter.

6.0 Duties

Entry Supervisor

  • The entry supervisor is responsible for authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations and will:
    • Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including the signs and consequences of the exposure.
    • Complete the entry permit, ensure that air monitoring has been performed.
    • Remain at the site and ensure that all entries are performed according to these regulations.
    • Ensure that safety and communication equipment is available.
    • ensure that only authorized individuals enter the permit space.
    • ensure that entry operations remain consistent with the terms of the permit.
    • terminate the entry and cancel the permit.
  • The Entry Supervisor must be approved by the Assistant Director of Facilities Management and the Safety Manager.

Authorized Entrants

  • Authorized entrants will:
    • Know the atmospheric and physical hazards that may be faced during entry.
    • Receive training in how to use safety equipment, personal protective equipment, and communication equipment.
    • Maintain communication with the attendant.
    • Notify the attendant whenever the entrant recognizes any warning sign or symptom that may indicate exposure to a hazardous atmosphere or notes a possible dangerous condition..
    • Exit from the space immediately if the attendant or supervisor orders an evacuation, the entrant detect a hazardous condition, or the monitor alarms.


  • An attendant must remain outside the permit space at all times during entry operations and observe the actions of workers. The attendant will:
    • Receive training in hazard recognition and rescue procedures.
    • Remain in constant communication with the entrants and order the workers to leave if an unsuspected hazard occurs or a toxic reaction is observed in a worker.
    • Warn unauthorized persons not to enter the confined space.
    • Be equipped with a communications device capable of contacting a base operator or the emergency rescue team.
    • Not enter the confined space for rescue purposes until help has arrived.
    • Continuously maintain an accurate count of authorized entrants in the permit space.

7.0 Rescue Procedures

  1. Notify the Safety Office and The Radford City Fire Department prior to entering a permit space that contains a hazardous atmosphere or uncontrolled serious safety hazard.
  2. Wear a safety line attached to a full body harness when entering a permit space containing a hazardous atmosphere or uncontrolled serious safety hazard.  The other end of the line must be secured to a lifting device outside the entry portal.
  3. In the event of an emergency the attendant will immediately radio the appropriate base operator or contact the rescue team directly with a mobile phone. Notify the Facilities Management base operator during normal working hours. Notify the Campus Police base operator after normal working hours. The base operator will contact rescue personnel. The Fire Chief, or his designate, will be in charge and coordinate the rescue effort.
  4. After placing the rescue call, the attendant will attempt to retrieve the worker if the worker is connected to a life line. Under no circumstance will the attendant enter the confined space until help has arrived, and then only with the proper rescue equipment. Attendants participating in the rescue effort will receive specialized training in rescue techniques.
  5. When entering a permit space for rescue purposes wear a self-contained breathing apparatus or a positive pressure airline respirator with a ten minute escape bottle of air. Do not use air-purifying respirators for rescue purposes.
  6. Rescue breathing equipment is not required if the cause of the emergency is clearly due to a condition other than a hazardous atmosphere (e.g., object falling on head).

Excavation and Trenching

1.0 Competent Person

  1. Before excavation, inspect the site for possible hazards including equipment, underground installations and adjacent structures.
  2. Inspect excavations, adjacent areas, equipment, and protective systems before the start of work each day, as needed throughout the shift, and after every rainstorm or other hazard-increasing event.
  3. Remove employees from hazardous areas until proper precautions are taken.
  4. Monitor water removal equipment and operations.
  5. Classify the soil and if necessary reclassify the soil after changed conditions.
  6. Evaluate trenches under five feet deep for cave-in potential. If no potential for a cave-in exists then the trench does not have to be protected.

2.0 Safety Manager

  1. Monitor overall effectiveness of the program and conduct periodic inspections of the site.
  2. Assist with atmospheric testing and equipment selection.
  3. Train employees and provide technical assistance.
  4. Review and update the program at least annually.

3.0 Supervision

  1. Protect employees from cave-ins by using sloping, shoring, or shielding in excavations over five feet deep.
  2. Ensure that protective systems are designed according to the appendices in the OSHA regulations, manufactures specifications, or as approved by a registered professional engineer.
  3. Provide guardrails, fences, or barricades on excavations adjacent to walkways.
  4. n excavations over 4 feet deep, provide stairs, ladders, or ramps every 25 feet.
  5. Barricade or cover holes, pits, and shafts to prevent unauthorized access.
  6. Provide a warning system if mobile equipment is operated next to the edge of an excavation and the operator does not have a clear view of the edge of the excavation.
  7. Test the atmosphere in excavations over 4 feet deep if a hazardous atmosphere is possible.
  8. Provide guardrails on walkways six feet or more above lower levels.
  9. Take precautions to protect employees from hazards posed by water accumulation in excavations.
  10. Protect employees from loose rock or soil that could fall from the excavation face. Keep materials at least 2 feet from the edge of excavations or use a restraining device.

4.0 Employees

  1. Wear high-visibility warning vests when working near vehicular traffic.
  2. Do not work underneath loads handled by lifting or digging equipment.
  3. Wear approved hardhats and steel toed shoes.
  4. Use approved safety glasses with side shields if exposed to flying fragments, dust, or other similar materials.
  5. Wear approved spectacles, faceshield, or helmet when exposed to hazards produced by welding or cutting operations.
  6. As necessary, wear appropriate gloves to protect the hands.
  7. Wear hearing protection when working near high noise producing equipment.
  8. Inspect and secure ladders. Extend ladders 3 feet above the surface of the excavation. Don't use aluminum ladders near exposed energized equipment.  Position the foot of the ladder one-quarter of the working length away from the support.

General Safety Rules

1.0 General

  1. Know and follow all safety rules which apply to your area or equipment.
  2. Do not use alcoholic beverages or controlled substances on the job.
  3. Horseplay, fighting, disorderly conduct, and practical jokes are not permitted.
  4. Confine work to designated areas, and take steps to prevent persons from being injured by work in progress.
  5. Immediately report any injury or property damage to your supervisor.
  6. Report unsafe conditions to your supervisor.
  7. Never remove or bypass safety devices or guards.
  8. Do not approach operating machinery from the blind side; let the operator see you.
  9. Be alert to hazards and be considerate of others.
  10. Obey safety signs and tags.
  11. Know emergency evacuation routes from your area.
  12. Know the location of fire extinguishers, safety showers and eyewash fountains.
  13. Do not block emergency equipment.
  14. Observe smoking regulations.
  15. Be sure you are qualified and authorized before operating equipment or tools.
  16. Violator of university safety rules may be subject to disciplinary procedures leading to possible dismissal.
  17. Ensure that ladders, scaffolds, hoists, ropes, and cables are in good condition before being used.
  18. Do not dispose of any waste materials in such a way that may contaminate or pollute the environment.

2.0 Personal Protective Equipment

  1. Hard hats are required at all job sites if there is a possibility that something could fall on your head.
  2. Steel toe safety shoes are required of all workers on construction and maintenance sites.
  3. Safety glasses or goggles are required when performing work or visiting job site where there is a potential that something could damage your eyes. For example safety eye wear is required when sawing, grinding, drilling, breaking concrete, weed eating, and pouring corrosive materials.
  4. Appropriate clothing must be worn on the job. Do not work without the protection of a shirt and long pants.
  5. Use approved hearing protection when performing work that creates excessive noise (greater than 85 decibels). Examples of tools and equipment requiring hearing protection are; power saw, jackhammer, impact wrench, chain saw, concrete or brick saw, air chisel, mowers, hand blowers, and weed eaters. 
  6. An approved respirators must be worn in dusty conditions or when exposed to gas or fumes. The respirator must be the right one for the exposure. The employee must be properly trained in the wear and care of the respirator. Persons wearing respirators may not have beards.
  7. When there is a possibility of falling from a height of greater than six feet, a safety harnesses must be worn. Lifelines must be securely attached to anchorage points that can withstand 5,000 pounds.
  8. Work gloves and other protective clothing shall be worn as required to protect the individual in each job situation.

3.0 Hand and Power Tools

  1. Inspect all tools before using. Do not use defective tools.
  2. Use tools only for their designed application.
  3. Do not use tools with mushroomed heads, sloppy connections, split or broken handles.
  4. Make sure electrical tools are grounded, double insulated or have an operable ground fault interrupter in the circuit.
  5. Disconnect tools and machines from their power source before making adjustments or attachment changes.
  6. Air powered tools must have safety pins, wires or retainers on all connections.
  7. Do not remove guards or safety devices.
  8. When using wood working machines or saws, use guards or push sticks when possible.
  9. Inspect abrasive wheels for cracks, chips, or other defects before using.
  10. Know the capacity of a jack or block and tackle before using it.
  11. Block lift jacks firmly and squarely to prevent slipping under loads.
  12. When using power tools wear ear protection.

4.0 Welding and Cutting

  1. Never store or move gas cylinders unless valve protection caps are in place.
  2. Store and move cylinders in a secured upright position.
  3. Do not take cylinders into confined spaces.
  4. Make sure regulators, hoses, couplings and tip connections are in good condition (no breaks, damage or cracked glass).
  5. Do not interchange hose connections between fuel gas and oxygen.
  6. Do not use matches or hot work to light torches.
  7. Do not weld or cut near flammable materials, especially paints, dusts, gases or vapors.
  8. Always have a  fire extinguisher near when cutting.
  9. Do not use compressed gas for comfort cooling, blowing dust from clothing, or for cleaning off work areas.
  10. Always wear suitable eye and face protection.
  11. Turn off gases at the cylinders when leaving a torch unattended.
  12. Check area before and after welding for fire hazards or fires. For electric arc welding, always wear proper eye and face protection.
  13. Inspect cables and electrodes for exposed conductors or cracked insulation.
  14. Report faulty or defective equipment to your supervisor.
  15. Make sure your equipment is properly grounded.
  16. Before making adjustments to any part of the electric welding equipment, be sure current is cut off.
  17. Do not look directly at welding operations. If others are in the vicinity, use a welding curtain.
  18. Do not wear metal jewelry, such as rings or watch bands when welding.

5.0 Electrical

  1. Know if a circuit is energized or not when working with or near electrical wiring. Unless an active circuit is a necessary condition of the work, the circuit must be de-energized and locked and tagged out before beginning work. Only the person authorized to do so will remove the lock and tag at the end of the work session.
  2. All extension cords and temporary wiring must be three-wire conductor. The grounding connector must not be by-passed or defeated in any way.
  3. Check all extension cords before use. Damaged cords and connectors must be reported to your supervisor and repaired or replaced.
  4. Ground fault interrupters or double insulated equipment must be used where temporary electrical wiring or extension cords are used.
  5. Wear electrically rated hard hats if you are working near energized electrical equipment.
  6. Know the location of all buried or concealed electrical circuits before drilling, jackhammering or digging.
  7. Check the work area for any exposed electrically active circuits, such as overhead lines. Make sure all electrically conducting equipment, including vehicles, will miss the wires.
  8. Do not use metal ladders or poles in an area with open electrical circuits.
  9. At least one member of a work crew working with electricity should be trained in CPR.

6.0 Ladders and Scaffolding

  1. Inspect ladders before each use for damaged rungs, split or cracked side rails. Faulty ladders shall be removed from service and tagged defective.
  2. Ladders in doorways, walkways, or other congested areas must be barricaded or guarded.
  3. The top of ladders must be at least 3 feet above a landing.
  4. All straight ladders must have non-skid feet and be securely tied off or held when in use.
  5. Do not use metal ladders where there is any possibility of electrical contact.
  6. All scaffolds must be plumb and erected on stable and secure footing adequate for the load.
  7. All bracing must be placed before scaffolds are loaded.
  8. Scaffold platforms are to be planked solid.
  9. Top rails, mid rails and toe boards must be in place on scaffolds before work starts.
  10. Scaffold parts that have been damaged or weakened shall be repaired or replaced.
  11. A ladder must be used to gain access to the work platform unless the scaffold has a built-in ladder for this purpose. Do not climb the bracing.

7.0 Floors, Wall Openings and Stairways

  1. All floor openings shall be protected with covers that cannot be displaced or by standard guardrails.
  2. Do not store materials on stairways (stairways must be kept clear).
  3. When guard rails are removed for material handling, they shall be replaced immediately.
  4. Wall openings, from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by a standard railing or the equivalent.
  5. Every open-side floor or platform 6 feet or more above the adjacent floor or ground shall be protected by a standard railing or equivalent.
  6. Guardrails must be constructed of sound, solid materials meeting OSHA standards for dimensions and spacing.
  7. All flights of stairs with four or more risers should have well-braced handrails.

8.0 Cars and Trucks

  1. Operators of motor vehicles on campus shall drive within the posted speed limits and obey all other traffic laws.
  2. Personnel being transported must be seated with no arms or legs extending beyond the edge of the truck platform or body. Where seat belts are installed, they must be used.
  3. Operators must make sure that all materials carried by vehicle are loaded so that the load will not shift or fall off.
  4. Mark material extending beyond the edge of a vehicle with a red warning flag.
  5. Do not leave the motor running in an unattended vehicle.
  6. Before exiting a vehicle leave the gear in the appropriate position for parking and engage the hand brake.
  7. Do not fill the gasoline tank on any vehicle while the motor is running. An approved safety gas can must be used for transporting or storing fuel.
  8. Be aware of safe clearance from overhead obstructions.
  9. If visibility is limited, use a helper when backing a vehicle.

9.0 Fumes and Pollutants

  1. Locate sources of fumes, mists and odors so that they will not affect others. Do not store or use them near air intakes for buildings. Examples are vehicle exhausts, paint sprays, vapors from open cans, and roofing materials.
  2. Where some public exposure cannot be avoided, inform the person responsible for the building of the planned work in advance so adjustments can be made, such as cutting off air handling units or allowing individuals to adjust their work schedules.
  3. Always follow the instructions on the labels when using or mixing chemicals. Wear the required personal protective equipment and inform others who might be affected of the risks associated with the materials.

10.0 Housekeeping

  1. A neat orderly area reduces the chances of accidents and fires. Leave every job clean and orderly at the end of each day.
  2. In removing debris from areas above ground level, do not throw materials from windows, down floor openings, hoist ways or safety chutes.
  3. Remove or hammer flat protruding nails before discarding lumber.
  4. Place oily rags in waste cans provided for that purpose.

Golf Carts

1.0 Training

  1. Drivers must receive a safety briefing and driving test administered by supervision before initial operation of a vehicle.
  2. Operators must have a valid drivers license and be employees of the university.

2.0 Inspection

  1. Before using the cart always check the vehicle and any attachments.
  2. Immediately report problems or defects to supervision (E.g., inoperable horn, difficulty braking, difficulty steering, etc.)

3.0 Driver and Passengers

  1. No more than two people are allowed on the vehicle at one time. All persons should remain seated in a moving vehicle.
  2. Operate the vehicle from the driver's seat only. Keep arms (except for signaling) and legs inside of vehicle while it is moving.  Always keep both hands on the steering wheel whenever possible.
  3. Passengers should hold on to seat handles or handrails at all times. Passengers are not allowed in the cargo be.

4.0 Driving

  1. Drive cautiously and responsibly. Obey all traffic rules and regulations. Always yield the right of way to pedestrians.
  2. Avoid excessive speed, sudden starts, stops, and tight turns. Use particular caution at intersections, building entrances and when backing.
  3. To prevent overturning of the vehicle drive slowly during turns and drive straight up and down slopes. Reduce speed for driving conditions such as wet grass or rough terrain.
  4. Always watch for and avoid low overhangs such as tree limbs, door jams, overhead walkways, etc.

5.0 Public Roads

  1. Carts may be operated on public roads within the property limits of the university if the following conditions are met:
    1. Speed limit of highways must be 35 mph or less.
    2. Carts are limited to 25 horsepower.
    3. Vehicles display a slow-moving vehicle emblem.
    4. A flashing warning beacon is mounted on the top of the cab.
  2. Drivers on public roads must be on official university business.

6.0 Payload

  1. Never overload your vehicle. Refer to the nameplate decal on the kick panel or the payload chart for maximum rated capacity.
  2. Always position loads carefully so they can’t shift or tip over suddenly. Distribute loads evenly over rear area. Keep loads low so the vehicle does not get top heavy.  Secure cargo to the platform using the tie down anchor brackets. Avoid stopping on hills when the vehicle is loaded.

Hand and Power Tools

General Safety Precautions

  • Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance.
  • Use the right tool for the job.
  • Examine each tool for damage before use.
  • Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions.
  • Provide and use the proper protective equipment.

Hand Tools

  • Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel.
  • Check the wooden handle on a tool such as a hammer or an axe to see if it is loose, splintered, or cracked.
  • Do not use a wrench if its jaws are sprung.
  • Impact tools such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins are unsafe if they have mushroomed heads.
  • Direct saw blades, knives, or other tools away from aisle areas and other employees. Keep knives and scissors sharp.
  • Always wear appropriate personal protective equipment, e.g., safety goggles, gloves, etc., while using portable power tools and hand tools.
  • Keep floors and other walking surfaces as clean and dry as possible to prevent slips.
  • Use spark-resistant tools made from brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood when working around flammable materials.

Power Tools

  • Know the potential hazards and safety precautions of power tools.
  • Never carry a tool by the cord or hose.
  • Do not yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle.
  • Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges.
  • Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories such as blades, bits and cutters.
  • Keep observers at a safe distance away from the work area.
  • Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool.
  • Avoid accidental starting. Do not hold your finger on the switch button while carrying a plugged-in tool.
  • Maintain power tools with care. Keep the tools sharp and clean for the best performance. Follow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and changing accessories.
  • Keep good footing and maintain good balance.
  • Wear proper clothing. Do not wear loose clothing, ties, or jewelry that can become caught in moving parts.
  • Remove portable electric tools from use that are damaged and tag"Do Not Use."


  • Provide a guard on moving parts of power tools. For example, belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment must be guarded if these parts are exposed to contact by employees.
  • Guards should be provided to protect the operator and others from the following:
    • point of operation,
    • in-running nip points,
    • rotating parts, and
    • flying chips and sparks.
  • Do not remove a safety guard when a tool is being used. For example, portable circular saws must be equipped with guards. An upper guard must cover the entire blade of the saw. A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw, except when it makes contact with the work material. The lower guard must automatically return to the covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work.

Safety Switches

  • The following hand-held powered tools must be equipped with a momentary contact "on-off" control switch: drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical and angle grinders with wheels larger than 2 inches in diameter, disc and belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar tools. These tools also may be equipped with a lock-on control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same finger or fingers that turn it on.
  • The following hand-held powered tools may be equipped with only a positive "on-off" control switch: platen sanders, disc sanders with discs 2 inches or less in diameter; grinders with wheels 2 inches or less in diameter; routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws and jigsaws with blade shanks <-inch wide or less.
  • Equip other hand-held powered tools with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. Examples include circular saws having a blade diameter greater than 2 inches, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means.

Electric Tools

  • Employees using electric tools must be aware of several dangers; the most serious is the possibility of electrocution. Among the chief hazards of electric-powered tools are burns and slight shocks which can lead to injuries or even heart failure. Under certain conditions, even a small amount of current can result in fibrillation of the heart and eventual death. A shock also can cause the user to fall off a ladder or other elevated work surface.
  • Electric tools must have a three-wire cord with ground and be grounded, be double insulated, or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer. If an adapter is used to accommodate a two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. Do not remove the third prong from the plug.
  • Double insulation is more convenient. The user and the tools are protected in two ways: by normal insulation on the wires inside, and by a housing that cannot conduct electricity to the operator in the event of a malfunction.
  • Follow these general practices when using electric tools:
    • Use electric tools according to the manufactures's instructions.
    • Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools.
    • Store tools in a dry place when not in use.
    • Do not use electric tools in damp or wet locations.
    • Work areas should be well lighted.

Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools

  • Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special safety problems because they may throw off flying fragments.
  • Before mounting an abrasive wheel, inspect it closely and do a ring-test to ensure that it is free from cracks or defects. To test, gently tap with a light non-metallic instrument. An undamaged wheel will give a clear metallic tone or "ring." If the wheel sounds cracked or dead, it could fly apart in operation.
  • To prevent the wheel from cracking, ensure that it fits freely on the spindle. Tighten the spindle nut enough to hold the wheel in place, without distorting the flange. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations. Use care to assure that the spindle wheel will not exceed the abrasive wheel specifications.
  • Do not stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full operating speed due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating during start-up.
  • Provide portable grinding tools with safety guards to protect workers from the moving wheel surface, but also from flying fragments in case of breakage.
  • In addition, when using a powered grinder:
    • Always use eye protection.
    • Turn off the power when not in use.
    • Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise.

Pneumatic Tools

  • Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers, and sanders. There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. The main one is the danger of getting hit by one of the tool's attachments or by some kind of fastener the worker is using with the tool.
  • Wear appropriate eye protection when working with pneumatic tools.
  • Use appropriate hearing protection when working with noisy tools such as jackhammers.
  • When using pneumatic tools, check to see that they are fastened securely to the hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. Use a short wire or positive locking device to attach the air hose to the tool as an added safeguard.
  • Install a safety clip or retainer to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a chipping hammer, from being unintentionally shot from the barrel.
  • Set up screens to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying fragments around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills.
  • Never point compressed air guns toward anyone.

Power-Actuated Tools

  • Powder-actuated tools operate like a loaded gun and should be treated with the same respect and precautions. They are so dangerous that they must be operated only by specially trained employees.
  • Safety precautions include the following:
    • Do not use these tools in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
    • Before using the tool, inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all moving parts operate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions.
    • Do not point the tool at anybody.
    • Do not load the tool unless it will be used immediately. Do not leave a loaded tool unattended, especially where it would be available to unauthorized persons.
    • Keep hands clear of the barrel end. To prevent the tool from firing accidentally, two separate motions are required for firing: one to bring the tool into position, and another to pull the trigger. The tool must not be able to operate until it is pressed against the work surface with a force at least 5 pounds greater than the weight of the tool.
  • If a powder-actuated tool misfires, wait at least 30 seconds, then try firing it again. If it still will not fire, wait another 30 seconds so that the faulty cartridge is less likely to explode, than carefully remove the load. Place the bad cartridge in water.
  • Wear suitable eye and face protection when using a powder-actuated tool.
  • The muzzle end of the tool must have a protective shield or guard centered perpendicularly on the barrel to confine any flying fragments or particles that might create a hazard when the tool is fired. The tool must be designed so that it will not fire unless it has this kind of safety device.
  • All powder-actuated tools must be designed for varying powder charges so that the user can select a powder level necessary to do the work without excessive force.
  • If the tool develops a defect during use, tag and take it out of service immediately until it is properly repaired.


  • Do not fire fasteners into material that would let them pass through to the other side. Do not drive the fastener into materials like brick or concrete any closer than 3 inches to an edge or corner. In steel, the fastener must not come any closer than one-half inch from a corner or edge. Never drive fasteners into very hard or brittle materials which might chip or splatter, or make the fastener ricochet.
  • Use an alignment guide when shooting a fastener into an existing hole. Do not drive a fastener into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.

Hydraulic Power Tools

  • Use an approved fire-resistant fluid in hydraulic power tools that retains its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed.
  • Do not exceed the manufacturer's recommended safe operating pressure for hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and other fittings.


  • Ensure that all jacks - lever and ratchet jacks, screw jacks, and hydraulic jacks - have a device that stops them from jacking up too high. Also, the manufacturer's load limit must be permanently marked in a prominent place on the jack and should not be exceeded.
  • Never use a jack to support a lifted load. Once the load has been lifted, immediately block it up.
  • Use wooden blocking under the base if necessary to make the jack level and secure. If the lift surface is metal, place a 1-inch-thick hardwood block or equivalent between it and the metal jack head to reduce the danger of slippage.
  • To set up a jack, make certain of the following:
    • the base rests on a firm level surface,
    • the jack is correctly centered,
    • the jack head bears against a level surface, and
    • the lift force is applied evenly.
  • Inspect all jacks before each use and lubricated regularly. If a jack is subjected to an abnormal load or shock, thoroughly examine it to make sure it has not been damaged.
  • Fill hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures with an adequate antifreeze liquid.


1.0 Storage

  1. Store ladders either vertically or horizontally with supports at each end and in the middle.
  2. Store ladders where they will not be exposed to excessive heat or dampness and where there is good ventilation
  3. Keep storage space  free of obstructions and accessible at all times so that ladders can be obtained quickly in an emergency.

2.0 Selection

  1. When you have to climb, use a ladder, and not a chair, box, or other substitute.
  2. Select a ladder that's the right length and weight capacity for the job.
  3. Do not use metal ladders near exposed energized parts.
  4. Use a ladder only for the purpose for which it was designed
  5. Do not use a ladder as a platform, runway, or scaffold.

3.0 Inspection

  1. Always inspect a ladder prior to use. Look for:
    1. Cracked, split, or broken uprights, steps, rungs, braces
    2. Loose steps or rungs
    3. Lose metal parts
    4. Visible wood or metal slivers or splinters
    5. Condition of non-slip feet
    6. Loose or bent hinge spreader
    7. Wobbly ladder
    8. Broken or excessively worn steps
    9. Deteriorated ropes
    10. Broken, loose, or missing extension locks
    11. Defective locks that do not seat properly
  2. Do not use ladders with missing or broken parts; tag the ladder as "Dangerous Do Not Use" and withdraw it from service.
  3. Ensure that portable ladders are equipped with non-slip bases when there is a hazard of slipping. Non-slip bases are not to be used as a substitute for lashing or holding the ladder on oily, metal, concrete, or slippery surfaces.
  4. Ensure that on extension ladders the minimum overlap is:
    1. 3 ft. (up to 36 feet)
    2. 4 ft. (36-48 ft)
    3. 5 ft. (48-60 ft)

4.0 Placement

  1. To carry a ladder position it so the front end is above your head and the back end is near the ground.
  2. Place the ladder so that the distance from the wall to the front of the ladder is one/fourth the working height of the ladder.
  3. Place a ladder so that both sides have secure footing or lash/ hold the ladder in position. Provide solid footing on soft ground to prevent the ladder from sinking.
  4. Set the feet so they're parallel with the surface the ladder rests against.
  5. To prevent trip hazards keep the area around the top and bottom of the ladder clear.
  6. Ensure that the top of the ladder extends at least 3 ft above the point of support.
  7. Do not leave a placed ladder unattended.
  8. Do not place ladders on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height
  9. Do not place ladders in front of door opening towards the ladder unless the door is blocked open, locked, or guarded.
  10. Be sure spreaders are fully extended and locked on step ladders.
  11. Do not place a ladder against a window pane or sash. Securely fasten a board (not with nails) across the top of the ladder to give support on each side of the window.

5.0 Ascending and Descending Ladders

  1. Never allow more than one person on a ladder.
  2. Don't move a ladder while your on it.
  3. Always face the ladder.  Keep your movements on the ladder slow and cautious.
  4. Never slide down a ladder.
  5. Keep one hand on the ladder while working.
  6. Always maintain 3 points of contact with the ladder (2 feet/1 hand or 2 hands/1 foot should be in contact with the ladder at all times.
  7. Carry tools in pouches around your waist, use a rope to raise or lower large items such as tool boxes or utensils.
  8. Do not overextend the siderail. Use the belt buckle rule. Keep the belt buckle positioned between the siderails at all times, which will maintain your center of gravity.
  9. Always wear dry, non-skid shoes.
  10. Do not stand on cross bracing or the back legs of step ladders.
  11. Don't step on the top two steps of a step-ladder or top four rungs of an extension ladder.


1.0 Training

Employees who perform service or maintenance on equipment that could cause injury due to the unexpected start-up or release of stored energy must receive training in lockout/tagout procedures and be authorized by the Safety Office.

2.0 Lockout Devices

  1. Use lockout devices if the equipment can be locked out. Locks are individually assigned and have a unique number or the name of the employee on the lock. Do not use locks for any other purpose.
  2. Locks must be removed only by the person applying it, except during emergencies.  If an employee is not available to remove a lockout/tagout device notify supervision. Supervision will verify that the employee is not at the facility and make a reasonable effort to contact the employee and notify him/her that the device will be removed.
  3. Locks, hasps, circuit breaker locks, plug locks, wall switch lockouts, and valve covers are supplied by the Safety Office. Employees may be charged for locks that are lost.

3.0 Tagout Devices

  1. Use tagout devices only when it is not possible to lockout the equipment. Tags must be standardized, have reinforced eyelets and not be used for other purposes. They must be secured to energy isolating devices with a nylon cable tie with an unlocking strength of greater than 50 pounds. Place your name, date, and time on the tag. Always apply a lockout tag with the lock.
  2. Tagout devices will be supplied by the Safety Office.

4.0 Procedures

  1. Prepare for shutdown. Think, plan and check the equipment. Know the type of energy the machine uses. Identify its potential hazards. Find the switches, valves, or other devices that control energy and need to be locked out.
  2. Notify employees who use the equipment and other employees in the area that you are locking/tagging out the equipment and they are not to turn the equipment on without your permission.
  3. Turn the equipment off by disconnecting the circuit through the normal stopping method.
  4. Locate and isolate all energy sources. Always look for hidden energy sources. Get rid of any stored energy. Block movable parts. Release or block spring energy. Drain or bleed hydraulic and pneumatic lines. Lower suspended parts to rest positions.
  5. Lockout/tagout the disconnect, breaker, or other energy sources in the "off" position. Use a lock/tag designed only for this purpose and use your own lock/tag. Test the disconnect to be sure it can't be moved to the "on" position. Pulling a fuse or flipping a circuit breaker is not a substitute for lockout/tagout.
  6. If a group lockout device is used, make sure everyone involved in the repair work has his/her lock connected to the hasp.
  7. A standardized lockout tag may be used if the equipment cannot be locked out. The tag must be affixed at a point where the lock would have been located.
  8. Verify that the equipment cannot be started. Test the operating controls at the machine. Make sure no one is close enough to get hurt. Put the control button in the on position. Press all start buttons. Make sure the power doesn't go back on. Check circuits with a voltmeter.
  9. Put operating controls back in the "off" position.
  10. Perform necessary service or maintenance. Avoid doing something that will re-energize the equipment.
  11. Remove the lockout/tagout device. Do not let someone else remove your lock/tag. Restore energy safely. Make sure all tools have been removed and all lines reconnected or unblocked, all guards replaced, and other workers are safely out of the way.
  12. Notify affected and other employees that the maintenance or service is completed.

Medical Emergencies

Intitial Response - Life Threatening Conditions

  1. Check the scene for safety. Check the victim for consciousness, breathing, pulse, and severe bleeding.
  2. Immediately call 9-911 and campus police (when possible) if the victim:
    1. Is unconscious.
    2. Has trouble breathing.
    3. Has chest pain or pressure.
    4. Is bleeding severely.
    5. Has pressure or pain in the abdomen that does not go away.
    6. Is vomiting or passing blood.
    7. Has a seizure that lasts more than a few minutes or repeats.
    8. Has a severe headache or slurred speech.
    9. Appears to have been poisoned.
    10. Has injuries to the head, neck, or back or possible broken bones.
  3. Be prepared to give the following information:
    1. What happened, number of victims, kind of injury.
    2. Exact location of the emergency and what help is being given.
    3. Your name and phone number.
  4. Do not hang up until the dispatcher hangs up. Do not move the victim unless absolutely necessary. Watch for signs of shock.

Initial Response - Non-Life Threatening Conditions

  1. If there are no life threatening conditions:
    1. Watch for changes in breathing and consciousness.
    2. Help the victim rest comfortably and reassure the victim.
    3. Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
  2. Call campus police for serious injuries that are not life-threatening. Campus police will assess the situation, provide first aid and call EMS if necessary. Campus police will not transport the victim to the hospital.
  3. Departments are responsible for providing first aid for minor conditions such as cuts and scrapes.

Emergency Procedures

Bleeding (External)


  • Cover the wound with clean dressing and press firmly.
  • Elevate wound above the level of the victims heart if the wound does not involve a broken bone.
  • Apply a pressure bandage snugly over the wound. If bleeding doesn't stop apply additional dressings, do not remove blood soaked bandages.
  • Squeeze an artery against the bone, pressure points are located on the inside of the upper arm and groin area.
  • Do not remove impaled objects.
  • Watch for signs of shock

Bleeding (Internal)

Signs and Symptoms

  • Tender, swollen, bruised, or hard areas of the body.
  • Rapid, weak pulse, vomiting or coughing up blood.
  • Skin that feels cool, moist or looks pale or bluish.
  • Excessive thirst.
  • Becoming confused, faint, drowsy, or unconscious


  • Call an ambulance and help the victim rest.
  • Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated
  • Do not give anything by mouth.



  • Call an ambulance for critical burns and watch for signs of shock.
  • Critical burns are burns with breathing difficulty, burns covering more than one body part, burns to the head, neck, hands, feet, or genitals, burns resulting from chemicals, explosion, or electricity.
  • Cool the burned area with large amounts of cool water.
  • Cover the burn with a dry, clean dressing. Bandage loosely.
  • Do not use ointments on a severe burn.
  • Don't apply ice to a burn unless it is very minor.

Choking (Conscious)

Signs and Symptoms

  • Victim is unable to speak, breath, or cough.
  • Victim may turn pale, white, gray, or blue.
  • Victim may be clutching throat, gasping or breathing noisily.


  • If victim is coughing forcefully encourage him/her to continue.
  • Call an ambulance if person cannot breath, or cough forcefully.
  • Stand behind the victim and place your fist just above naval.
  • Grasp fist with other hand and give quick inward and upward thrusts until object is removed. Do not slap victim on the back

Diabetic Emergency

Signs and Symptoms

  • Dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, feeling or looking ill.
  • Irregular breathing, abnormal pulse.


  • Look for a Medic Alert Tag.
  • If conscious, give the victim some kind of real sugar.
  • Call an ambulance if victim doesn't get better in about 5 minutes.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Weakness, dizziness, nausea, may see spots.
  • Pale, cool, moist skin.
  • Rapid, weak pulse, breathing is shallow.


  • Keep the victim from getting chilled or overheated.
  • Loosen restrictive clothing such as belt, tie, or collar.
  • Watch for changes in consciousness and breathing.
  • Do not give anything to eat or drink.
  • Place on side if the victim vomits.
  • Position victim on back and elevate legs 12 inches.
  • Call an ambulance if victim does not seem to recover completely or is unconscious for any length of time.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Deformity, bruising, swelling, painful to the touch.
  • Injured area is cold, numb or bluish. Inability to use the part.
  • Victim heard or felt a snap or pop at the time of injury.


  • Call an ambulance and have the victim rest comfortably.
  • Splint the body part only if the patient must be moved and you can do it without causing more pain.
  • Splint an injury in the position you find it.
  • Splint the injured area and the joints above and below the injury.
  • Check for proper circulation before and after splinting.

Head and Spine Injuries

Signs and Symptoms

  • Changes in consciousness.
  • Severe pain, bumps or depressions in the head, neck, or back.
  • Tingling, loss of sensation, or loss of movement.
  • Blood or other fluid in the ears or nose.
  • Seizures, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness.
  • Bruising around the eyes or behind the ears.


  • Call an ambulance.
  • Do not move the victim unless you absolutely have to.
  • Minimize movement of the head and spine.
  • Place your hands on both sides of the victim=s head. Position the head gently in line with the body and support it in that position.
  • Don't try to move the head if it is positioned sharply to one side, you feel resistance, or movement hurts the victim.

Heart Attack

Signs and Symptoms

  • Persistent chest pain or discomfort.
  • Pain that spreads to the arms, back, neck, jaw or stomach.
  • Shortness of breath and changes in pulse rate.
  • Sweating, nausea, dizziness.


  • Call an ambulance. Do not drive the victim to the hospital.
  • Help the victim rest comfortably.
  • Obtain information about the victim=s condition.
  • Do not give anything to eat or drink.
  • Comfort and monitor the victim, be prepared to do CPR.

Heat Exhaustion

Signs and Symptoms

  • Cool, pale, moist skin.
  • Rapid, shallow breathing. Rapid ,weak pulse.
  • Headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or weakness.


  • Move victim to a cool place and call an ambulance if the victim refuses water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness.
  • Loosen tight clothing and remove clothing soaked with sweat.
  • Have victim lie down, elevate feet 12 inches.
  • Give fluids slowly (one-half glass every 15 minutes).
  • Apply cool wet cloth to skin and fan victim.

Heat Stroke

Signs and Symptoms

  • Red, hot, usually dry skin. Very high body temperature.
  • Strong, rapid pulse which become weak as the condition worsens.
  • Rapid, deep breathing followed by rapid , shallow breathing.
  • Convulsions & loss of consciousness.


  • Call an ambulance and move victim to a cool environment.
  • Have victim lie down, raise feet 12 inches.
  • Loosen tight clothing and remove perspiration soaked clothing.
  • Apply cool wet cloth to skin, ankles, wrists, neck, armpits.
  • Give fluids slowly (one-half glass every 15 minutes).
  • Monitor breathing and consciousness.
  • If victim loses consciousness, cool the body by any means- use a water hose or put ice packs on victim.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Shivering, poor coordination, loss of consciousness.
  • Numbness, glassy stare, slurred speech.


  • Call an ambulance and move victim to a warm place.
  • Remove any wet clothing and dry the victim.
  • Warm the victim slowly by wrapping in blankets.
  • Apply other sources of heat if they are available.

Poinsoning by Ingestion

Signs and Symptoms

  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe stomach pain.
  • Altered respiration and pulse rate.
  • Burns or stains around the mouth. Unusual odors on the breath.


  • Quickly take the container to the phone and call 9-911 & the Poison Control Center and follow their instructions.
  • Care for shock and monitor breathing while waiting for EMS.
  • Do not give anything by mouth unless instructed to do so by medical professionals.

Poisoning by Inhalation

Signs and Symptoms

  • Shortness of breath, coughing, pale or bluish skin.
  • Possible bright red color (carbon monoxide poisoning).
  • Headache, dizziness, fainting, weakness.


  • Call an ambulance and ensure that the scene is safe.
  • Remove the victim to fresh air and loosen tight clothing.
  • Check breathing and pulse and treat for shock.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Victim may have a warning premonition or aura.
  • Victim may utter a short cry or scream.
  • Muscles become rigid and jerky.
  • Change in consciousness.


  • Do not restrain the victim or place anything between the teeth.
  • Remove any objects that may cause injury and cushion head.
  • Call an ambulance if seizure lasts more than a few minutes or victim has multiple seizures.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Restlessness or irritability, dazed look.
  • Pale, cool, moist skin, weakness, nausea, vomiting.
  • Shallow breathing and a weak rapid pulse.


  • Call an ambulance.
  • Have the victim lie down and loosen tight clothing.
  • Maintain normal body temperature.
  • If there are no head or neck injuries elevate the legs 12 inches.
  • Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink.

Snake Bite

Signs and Symptoms

  • Severe pain, rapid swelling, discoloration of the skin.
  • Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, breathing difficulty, blurred vision.


  • Call EMS if the snake is poisonous or your not sure.
  • Wash the wound. Keep the victim lying down and quite.
  • Immobilize the area keeping it lower than the heart.
  • Do not apply ice, cut the wound, apply a tourniquet or suction the wound with your mouth.
  • Do not give the victim anything to eat or drink. Treat for shock.
  • Use a snakebite kit if more than 30 minutes from medical care.

Strains and Spains

Signs and Symptoms

  • Pain on movement of the injured area.
  • Swelling, discoloration and tenderness to the touch.


  • Have the victim lie down.
  • Apply ice to the injured area (15-20 minutes every 1 2 to 2 hours). Do not apply ice directly to the skin.
  • Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart.
  • Seek medical help if swelling or pain persists.


Signs and Symptoms

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body.
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech.
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance.
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.


  • Call an ambulance and have the victim rest comfortably.
  • Comfort and reassure the victim.
  • Do not give anything to eat or drink.
  • Turn victim on side to allow fluids to drain from mouth.

Powered Industrial Trucks

1.0 Training

  1. Operators must be trained and authorized by the Safety Office. Training will include safe operating practices, OSHA regulations, and a driving test. All new operators, regardless of previous experience, must be trained. Authorized drivers will be issued a license to operate powered industrial trucks and must have the license with them when operating the truck.
  2. Retraining in safety procedures and OSHA regulations will be conducted every three years by the Safety Office and an evaluation of driver performance will be conducted every three years by an experienced and knowledgeable driver.

2.0 Inspections

Inspect the vehicle daily. Note the following:

  1. Maladjustment and excessive wear of components that may interfere with proper operation of control mechanisms.
    1. Contamination of control mechanisms by lubricants or other foreign matter.
    2. Proper operation of safety devices.
    3. Deterioration or leakage of air into hydraulic systems.
    4. Malfunctioning, excessive deterioration, dirt, or moisture in electrical system.
    5. Steering, braking, and locking devices.
    6. Excessively worn or damaged tires.

3.0 Equipment

  1. Provide lift trucks with horns or other warning devices that are loud enough to be heard above other noises in the area.
  2. Provide auxiliary lighting on trucks used  in areas where general lighting is less than two lumens per square foot.
  3. Do not allow the load to exceed the top of the backrest. Use a load backrest extension to minimize the possibility of the load falling backwards. Placing extra weight on the rear of the lift truck to counterbalance the front load is not permitted.
  4. Equip the truck with an overhead guard if the truck is capable of lifting loads higher than your head or where there is a hazard from falling objects. Be aware that the guard is not designed to protect you from a full capacity load.
  5. Guard moving parts such as gears, chains, and sprockets.
  6. Operators are required to wear seat belts if installed on the lift truck.

4.0 Battery-Operated Unites

  1. Locate battery-charging installations in areas designated for that purpose. Have materials available to flush and neutralize spilled electrolytes. Ensure that adequate fire protection and ventilation are available. Install an emergency shower and eyewash station in the area.
  2. Use an overhead hoist, or equivalent equipment, for handling batteries. Properly position and secure reinstalled batteries. Use a carboy or siphon for handling electrolytes. Always pour acid into water, never the reverse. Remove vent caps during charging operations. Remove battery or compartment covers to dissipate heat.
  3. Do not allow open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in battery-charging areas. Keep tools and other metallic objects away from the tops of uncovered batteries. Smoking is prohibited in the charging area. Post "No Smoking" signs.
  4. Employees charging and changing batteries must be authorized to do the work, trained in the proper handling, and required to wear protective clothing, including eye protection, long sleeves, aprons, and gloves.

5.0 Service and Maintenance

  1. Turn engines off before filling fuel tanks. Post  "No Smoking"   in areas where fuel is stored or handled.
  2. Take a truck in need of repair, or in any way unsafe, out of service until it has been restored to a safe operating condition.
  3. Do not make modifications and additions which effect capacity and safe operation without written approval from the manufacturer.

6.0 Hazardous Atmospheres

  1. When using fuel-powered trucks in enclosed areas, ensure that carbon monoxide and other hazardous gases do not exceed OSHA limits. Do not allow fuel-powered trucks to idle for long periods in enclosed areas.

7.0 Loading

  1. Handle only stable or safely arranged loads. Use caution when handling off-center loads. Neatly pile objects. Place heavy objects with the weight as low as possible. Block or tie round objects so they cannot roll. Do not load to a height that blocks the view ahead or makes it likely the load may fall.
  2. Place the forks under the load as far as possible and carefully tilt the mast backward to stabilize the load. Do not exceed the rated capacity of the truck.
  3. Use extreme care when tilting the load forward or backward. Do not tilt elevated loads forward unless the load is in a deposit position over a rack or stack. When stacking, use only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load.
  4. Do not drive up to anyone standing in front of a fixed object. Do not allow people to pass under the elevated forks, whether loaded or empty.
  5. When standard forks are used to pick up drums, use care to ensure that the tips do not puncture the drum or push it into other workers.
  6. While loading or unloading trucks and trailers, set the brakes and block the wheels to prevent movement.
  7. Use powered industrial trucks only for the purpose for which it is designed.   Do not use trucks to bump skids, push piles, move other trucks, or used as a hoist.

8.0 Traveling

  1. Do not operate the truck in a reckless or careless manner.  Operate the truck at a speed that will permit it to be brought to a stop in a safe manner. Slow down on wet or slippery surfaces. Never run over loose objects on the roadway surface.
  2. Slow down and sound horns at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed.  Lightly tap the horn to warn pedestrians when approaching from behind. If the load obstructs your forward view, travel with the load trailing.
  3. Ascend or descend grades slowly. Drive loaded trucks with the load upgrade when ascending or descending grades in excess of 10%. On all grades, tilt the forks back and raise only as far as necessary to clear the road surface. Use low gear or the slowest speed when descending a grade.
  4. Drive over dockboards slowly and only after they have been properly secured. Never exceed their rated weight capacity.
  5. Approach elevators slowly. Check to make sure the weight of the truck, load, and driver do not exceed the capacity of the elevator. Once on the elevator, put the controls in neutral, set the brakes and turn the engine off.
  6. Do not not make quick starts, jerky stops, or turns at excessive speeds. Use extreme caution on turns, ramps, grades, or inclines. Maintain a safe distance from the edges of elevated ramps or platforms.
  7. Be particularly careful to avoid striking overhead objects such as lights, pipes, and sprinkler heads. Do not raise or lower loads while traveling.
  8. Do not allow unauthorized personnel to ride on trucks.
  9. Keep hands, legs and feet inside the operating cab of the lift truck.

9.0 Parking

  1. When the operator is greater than 25 feet from the vehicle, or the vehicle is not in view, lower the forks, put controls in neutral, shut the power off, remove the key, and set the brakes. Block the wheels if the truck is parked on an incline.
  2. When the operator is within 25 feet of the truck still in view, lower the forks, put controls in neutral, set  the brakes.
  3. Park in a safe area away from traffic. Do not park in front of doorways, electrical panels and fire equipment.

Stand Up Rider Trucks

1.0 Visual Checks

  1. Battery charged. Battery water level OK. Vent caps in place. Connector secure.
  2. Lifting chains in place.
  3. Drive tire, caster, and load wheels in good condition.
  4. Safety shield clean.
  5. Forks in place and properly secured.
  6. Load backrest in place and properly secured.
  7. Overhead guard in place and properly secured.

2.0 Operational Checks

  1. Operate and re-engage emergency power disconnect or battery connector.
  2. Horn (Toot it).
  3. Raise.
  4. Lower.
  5. Travel (slowly).
  6. Apply brakes.
  7. Check steering.
  8. Test travel through full speed range both forward and reverse.
  9. Extend and retract reach mechanism (if provided).
  10. Tilt fork tips downward or upward (if tilt is provided).
  11. Shift carriage left and right (if sideshift provided).
  12. Pay attention to all labels and markings.

3.0 Safeguard your Truck

  1. Make safety check before use.
  2. Don't let others operate your truck unless they are authorized and trained.
  3. Use caution when changing direction. Come to a complete stop before changing direction.
  4. Don't overload (know it=s capacity). Overloading could upset your truck or cause hydraulic or mechanical failure endangering both you and components.
  5. Avoid sudden stops and starts.
  6. Check the work area. Look for damaged floors; note overhead obstructions; note ramps and docks; make certain your truck is intended for the grades you intend to travel (see serial plate); check traffic area.
  7. When leaving your truck unattended:
    1. Fully lower forks.
    2. Turn off key switch.
    3. Avoid parking on inclines when possible.
    4. Block wheels of truck if you must park on incline.
  8. Maintain a distance of at least three truck lengths from the truck ahead.
  9. Observe in-plant speed limits.
  10. Keep truck under control at all times.
  11. Don't pass other vehicles traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations.
  12. Avoid running over loose objects in the aisle.

4.0 Protect Other People

  1. Don't let others operate your truck unless they are authorized and trained.
  2. No riders.
  3. When elevating personnel:
    1. Use a securely attached safety platform.
    2. Make certain lifting mechanism is operating properly.
    3. Never tilt when elevated.
    4. Make certain truck is in neutral and brake is applied.
    5. Lift and lower smoothly.
    6. Watch for overhead obstructions.
    7. Never transport personnel on the platform from one location to another.
  4. Yield to pedestrians.
  5. Slow down in congested areas.
  6. Lower forks when parking or traveling.
  7. Yield the right-of-way to vehicles on your right.
  8. Don't follow too closely.
  9. 9. Slow down and sound your horn when approaching intersecting aisles.
  10. Never drive your truck up to anyone standing in front of a fixed object.
  11. Do not allow anyone to stand or pass under elevated portion of truck.
  12. Operate at a speed that will permit truck to be brought to a stop in a safe manner.
  13. Spread forks as far as load will permit. Place forks as far under load as possible.
  14. Handle only stable loads.
  15. Use extreme care when handling long, high, or wide loads.
  16. Reach (when provided):
    1. Extend to deposit and pick-up load.
    2. Retract for travel.
  17. Tilting (when provided):
    1. Tilt forward only to deposit or pick up load.
    2. Tilt rearward only to stabilize the load.
    3. Tilt forward only at lower elevations.

5.0 Protect Yourself

  1. Are you trained?
  2. Watch for overhead obstructions.
  3. Keep your arms, hands, and legs away from the lifting mechanism and within the running lines of the truck.
  4. Turn steering tiller in smooth motion and at a moderate, even rate.
  5. Do not drive with wet or greasy hands.
  6. Check capacity and mounting of dockboards before using.
  7. Elevators:
    1. Do not drive onto elevator unless authorized.
    2. Check capacity of elevator before entering.
    3. Check to make certain all personnel have left elevator.
    4. Enter elevator load first.
    5. Enter squarely and slowly.
    6. Neutralize control-shut off power-set brakes.
  8. Never pass or stand under elevated portion of truck.
  9. Maintain a safe distance from the edges of ramps, dockboards, and docks.
  10. Never use your truck in an unauthorized area or explosive atmosphere.
  11. Ascend or descend grades.
    1. With load retracted.
    2. With load tilted back.
    3. Slowly.
    4. With load upgrade when truck is loaded.
    5. With load engaging means downgrade when truck is unloaded.
  12. Don't turn on grades, ramps, or inclines. Always travel straight up or down.
  13. Slow down when making turns.
  14. Travel with load against the vertical face of the forks and with load or lifting mechanism at minimum ground clearance, retracted, and tilted back.
  15. Know and observe floor, dockboard and bridgeplate weight limits. Make certain dockboards and bridgeplates are secure.

6.0 Protect Other Property

  1. Slow down for hazardous conditions(such as wet or slippery floors).
  2. Avoid bumping into objects.
  3. Be sure your load or forks are clear before lowering.
  4. Be alert -- anticipate.
  5. Yield to emergency vehicles.
  6. Travel in direction providing best visibility.

Walkie Trucks

1.0 Safe Operating Procedures

  1. Are you trained?
  2. Make truck safety check before use.
  3. Check the work area. Look for damaged floors; note overhead obstructions; note ramps and docks; make certain your truck is intended for the grades you intend to travel (see serial plate); check traffic areas.
  4. Do not drive with wet or greasy hands.
  5. Be alert -- anticipate.
  6. Watch for overhead obstructions.
  7. Keep you arms, hands, legs and feet away from lifting mechanism and the running lines of the truck.
  8. Do not ride the truck.
  9. Use a load backrest whenever there is danger of the load or part of it falling toward you.
  10. Maintain a safe distance from the edges of ramps, dockboards, and dock.
  11. When using tow tractor, check turning clearance of trailers being towed.
  12. Watch for pedestrians and give them right-of-way.
  13. Never drive your truck up to anyone in the path of travel.
  14. Do not (or allow anyone to) stand or pass under elevated portion of truck.
  15. No riders -- never transport personnel from one location to another.
  16. When elevating personnel:
    1. Use a securely attached and approved safety platform.
    2. Make certain lifting mechanism is operating properly.
    3. Mast vertical (never tilt when elevated).
    4. Make certain truck is in neutral and brake is applied.
    5. Lift and lower slowly.
    6. Watch for overhead obstructions.
    7. Make certain you can see and hear person being elevated.
    8. Never transport personnel on the platform from one location to another.
  17. Don't let others operate your truck unless they are authorized and trained.
  18. Watch out for other vehicles.
  19. Yield to emergency vehicles.
  20. Slow down and sound your horn when approaching intersecting aisles.
  21. Never use your truck in an unauthorized area or explosive atmosphere.
  22. Travel in direction providing best visibility.
  23. Travel with load against the vertical face of the forks. M, W, WB & WR trucks should travel with the load or lifting mechanism at minimum ground clearance and tilted back. PW & GPW trucks should travel with the load or lifting mechanism at maximum ground clearance.
  24. Lower forks when parking or traveling.
  25. Be sure your load or forks are clear before lowering.
  26. Avoid sudden stops and starts.
  27. Use caution when changing direction. Come to a complete stop, look before changing direction.
  28. Keep truck under control at all times.
  29. Operate at a speed that will permit truck to be brought to a stop in a safe manner.
  30. Observe in-plant speed limits.
  31. Slow down in congested areas.
  32. Slow down for hazardous conditions (such as wet or slippery floors).
  33. Slow down when making turns.
  34. Don't follow to closely. Maintain a distance of at least three truck lengths from the truck ahead.
  35. Don't pass other vehicles traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations.
  36. Avoid running over loose objects in the aisle.
  37. Avoid bumping into objects.
  38. Turn steering control in smooth motion and at a moderate, even rate.
  39. Don't turn on grades, ramps, or inclines. Always travel straight up or down.
  40. Ascend or descend grades slowly:
    1. With load upgrade when truck is loaded except when using tow tractor.
    2. With load engaging means down grade when truck is unloaded.
    3. With load tilt back.
    4. Forks raised only enough to clear.
  41. Don't overload (know it=s capacity). Overloading could upset your walkie or cause mechanical failure endangering both you and others.
  42. Spread forks as far as load will permit. Place forks as far under load as possible.
  43. Handle only stable loads.
  44. Tilting:
    1. Tilt forward only to deposit or pick up load.
    2. Tilt rearward only to stabilize the load.
    3. Tilt forward only at lower elevations.
  45. Know and observe floor, dockboard and bridge plate weight limits. Make certain dockboards and bridge plates are secure.
  46. Elevators:
    1. Do not drive onto elevator unless authorized.
    2. Check capacity of elevator before entering.
    3. Check to make certain all personnel have left elevator.
    4. Enter elevator load first.
    5. Enter squarely and slowly.
    6. Neutralize control--shut off power--set brakes.
  47. Use extreme care when handling long, high, or wide loads.
  48. When attachments are used, operate as partially loaded truck. Observe derating as set forth on serial plate.
  49. When leaving your truck unattended:
    1. Apply parking brake.
    2. Fully lower forks.
    3. Turn off key switch.
    4. Avoid parking on inclines.
    5. Block wheels of truck if you must park on incline.

Welding, Cutting, and Brazing

1.0 Fire Prevention and Protection

  1. When practical, move objects to be welded or cut to a safe location. If the object cannot readily be moved, move fire hazards in the vicinity to a safe place. If possible, move combustibles at least 35 feet from the work site.
  2. If the object cannot be moved and if the fire hazards cannot be removed, then use guards to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the fire hazards.
  3. If there are floor openings, cracks or holes in walls, open doorways and open or broken windows that cannot be closed, take precautions to prevent combustible materials from going through these openings.
  4. Ensure that fire extinguishers are readily available.
  5. Post fire watchers when welding or cutting is performed in locations where any of the following conditions exist:
    1. Appreciable combustible materials are closer than 35 feet to the point of operation.
    2. Appreciable combustibles are more than 35 feet away but are easily ignited by sparks.
    3. Wall or floor openings within a 35-foot radius expose combustible material in adjacent  areas including concealed spaces in walls or floors.
    4. Combustible materials are adjacent to the opposite side of metal partitions, walls, ceilings, or roofs and are likely to be ignited by conduction or radiation.
  6. Fire watchers must have fire extinguishes readily available and be trained in its use. They must be familiar with the procedures for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire.
  7. Maintain the fire watch for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.
  8. Where combustible materials such as paper clippings or wood shavings are on the floor, sweep the floor clean for a radius of 35 feet. Keep combustible floors wet, covered with damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant shields. If floors have been wet down, protect personnel operating arc welding or cutting equipment from possible shock.
  9. Cutting or welding is not permitted in the following situations:
    1. In areas not authorized by management.
    2. In sprinkled buildings when such protection is shutdown.
    3. In the presence of potentially explosive atmospheres.
    4. In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, readily ignitable materials
  10. Protect or shut down ducts and conveyor systems that might carry sparks to distant combustibles.
  11. Provide fire-resistant shields or guards if cutting or welding is done near walls, partitions, ceilings or roofs of combustible construction.
  12. If welding is done on a metal wall, partition, ceiling or roof, take precautions to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other side, preferably by relocating combustibles. Where combustibles are not relocated, provide a fire watch on the opposite side from the work.
  13. Do not weld on a metal partition, wall, ceiling or roof having a combustible covering nor on walls or partitions of combustible sandwich-type panel construction.
  14. Do not cut or weld pipes or other metal in contact with combustible walls, partitions, or ceilings if the work is close enough to cause ignition by conduction.

2.0 Management

  1. Before cutting or welding, ensure that the area is inspected by an individual responsible for authorizing the operation. The responsible individual will establish precautions to follow and grant authorization preferably in the form of a written permit.
  2. Based on fire potentials of plant facilities, establish areas for cutting and welding, and establish procedures for cutting and welding in other areas.
  3. Insist that cutters or welders and their supervisors are suitably trained in the safe operation of their equipment and the safe use of the process.
  4. Advise contractors about flammable materials or hazardous conditions.

3.0 Welding or Cutting Containers

  1. Do not weld or cut used drums, barrels, tanks or other containers until they have been cleaned thoroughly to make certain there are no flammable or toxic materials present. Disconnect or blank any pipe lines or connections to the drum or vessel.
  2. Vent all hollow spaces, cavities or containers to permit the escape of air or gases before cutting or welding. Purging with inert gas is recommended.

4.0 Protection of Personnel


  1. Ensure that welders working on platforms, scaffolds, or runways are protected from falling.
  2. Place welding cable and other equipment so that it is clear of passageways, ladders, and stairways.

Eye Protection

  1. Use helmets or hand shields during all arc welding or arc cutting operations. Provide helpers or attendants with proper eye protection.
  2. Use goggles or other suitable eye protection during all gas welding or oxygen cutting operations. Spectacles without side shields, with suitable filter lenses, can be used during gas welding operations on light work, for torch brazing or for inspection.
  3. When working with resistance welding or brazing equipment use transparent face shields or goggles, depending on the particular job.
  4. Use the following guide for the selection of proper shade numbers.

Welding operation                             

Shade No.

Shielded metal-arc welding 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-inch electrodes  10
Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-inch electrodes  11
Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32-inch electrodes  12
Shielded metal-arc welding: 3/16, 7/32, 1/4 inch electrodes   12
Shielded metal-arc welding:  5/16, 3/8-inch electrodes    14
Carbon arc welding 14
Soldering 2
Torch brazing 3,4
Light cutting, up to 1 inch 3,4
Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches 4,5
Heavy cutting, 6 inches and over 5,6
Gas welding (light) up to 1/8 inch 4,5
Gas welding (medium) 1/8 inch to 1/2 inch 5,6
Gas welding (heavy) 1/2 inch and over 6,8

NOTE: In gas welding or oxygen cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, use a filter or lens that absorbs the yellow light.

Protection from Arc Welding Rays

  1. If possible, enclose the welder in a booth painted with a finish of low reflectivity or enclose the welder with noncombustible screens similarly painted. Ensure that booths and screens permit circulation of air at floor level.
  2. Protect workers adjacent to the welding areas from the rays by noncombustible screens or shields or require workers to wear appropriate goggles.

Protective Clothing

  1. Protect employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations by appropriate personal protective equipment.

Work in Confined Spaces

  1. Leave gas cylinders and welding machines on the outside when welding or cutting is performed in a confined space. Securely block heavy portable equipment mounted on wheels.
  2. Provide means for quickly removing a welder from a confined space in case of emergency. position an attendant with a radio outside to observe the welder at all times.
  3. When arc welding is suspended for any substantial period of time, such as during lunch or overnight, remove all electrodes from the holders and carefully position the holders so that accidental contact cannot occur and disconnected the machine from the power source.
  4. When gas welding or cutting, close the torch valves and shut off the fuel-gas and oxygen supply to the torch outside the confined area whenever the torch is not used for a substantial period of time. Where practicable remove the torch and hose from the confined space.
  5. After welding operations are completed, mark the hot metal or provide some other means of warning other workers.

5.0 Ventilation for General Welding and Cutting


  1. Provide mechanical ventilation:
    1. In a space with less than 10,000 cubic feet per welder.
    2. In a room with a ceiling height less than 16 feet.
    3. In confined spaces or where the welding space contains partitions, balconies, or other structural barriers that significantly obstruct cross ventilation.
  2. Ensure that the ventilation rate is at least 2,000 cubic feet per minute per welder, except where local exhaust hoods and booths are used. Natural ventilation is sufficient for welding or cutting operations where the restrictions listed above are not present.

Local Exhaust Hoods and Booths

1. Use local exhaust or general ventilation to keep the amount of toxic fumes, gases, or dusts below the permissible exposure limit.

2. For local exhaust ventilation, use one of the following:

a. Movable hoods placed as close to the work as practical and provided with a rate of 100 feet per minute in the zone of welding when the hood is at its most remote distance from the point of welding. The rates of ventilation required to accomplish this velocity using a 3-inch wide flanged suction opening are shown in the following table:

Welding Zone Minimum air flow -cfm Duct diameter- inches
4 to 6 inches 150 3
6 to 8 inches 275 3 1/2
8 to 10 inches 425 4 1/2
10 t o12 inches 600 5 1/2

b. A fixed enclosure with a top and two sides which surround the welding or cutting operations and with a rate of airflow of at least 100 linear feet per minute.

Ventilation in Confined Spaces

  1. Mechanically ventilate all welding and cutting operations in confined spaces to prevent the accumulation of toxic materials or possible oxygen deficiency.
  2. If mechanical ventilation cannot be provided, use NIOSH approved airline respirators.
  3. Do not use oxygen to ventilate a confined space.

First-aid Equipment

  1. Ensure that adequate first-aid supplies are available at all times.